Development of an instrument to indirectly monitor arterial pCO2 during cardiopulmonary bypass

Høgetveit, Jan Olav; Kristiansen, Frode; Pedersen, Thore H
January 2006
Perfusion;Jan2006, Vol. 21 Issue 1, p13
Academic Journal
Arterial blood carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) during cardiopulmonary bypass (CBP) is important to the conduct of perfusion with alpha-stat or pH-stat strategy. Temperature changes during CBP complicate any attempts to monitor carbon dioxide tension in the exhaust outlet of an oxygenator (PexCO2) because CO2 becomes more soluble with decreasing temperatures. Normally, this would have been the obvious and easy choice of method to indirectly measure the patient's PaCO2. Several tests have been performed with ordinary capnographs modified to measure pCO2 at the oxygenator exhaust gas port. These tests have shown varying degrees of precision (Br J Anaesth 1999; 82(6): 843–46; J Extra-Corpor Technol 2003; 35(3): 218–23; Br J Anaesth 2000; 84: 536; J Extra-Corpor Technol 1994; 26: 64–67). Some of the best results have been achieved by Potger et al. (J Extra-Corpor Technol 2003; 35(3): 218–23), who found a strong correlation between the arterial temperature-corrected PexCO2 when using a standard capnograph monitoring the PaCO2 measured from a blood gas analyser (PbCO2). Our group has developed a new instrument, especially designed for oxygenator gas exhaust monitoring. The new instrument has automatic temperature correction, enabling it to show both original and corrected pCO2 values, simultaneously. Ordinary capnograph functions, such as zeroing, flow control and calibration routines, are included. The solution consists of a pCO2 sensor module, a temperature sensor, a water trap and a dedicated PC mounted on a heart-lung machine. Since the heart-lung machine was already equipped with a computer for data logging and a temperature sensor, only a box containing the pCO2 sensor module and the water trap had to be added. The PC uses a specially written program designed to collect data, make the necessary calculations and display the results on the computer screen. A temperature correction was developed based on a linear regression analysis for a data-set of 15 patients, assuming that the deviation between the measured PexCO2 from the oxygenator exhaust outlet and the PbCO2 from the blood gas analyser was linearly dependent on arterial temperature alone. Eighty-six blood gas samples were compared to the corrected PexCO2 values. The final product displayed good qualities of stability and was accurate when temperature fluctuated from 32 to 38°C, even during rewarming, which has been reported to be a problem for other PexCO2 investigations (J Extra-Corpor Technol 2003; 35(3): 218–23).


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