Contrast‐Medium‐Induced Nephropathy Correlated to the Ratio Between Dose in Gram Iodine and Estimated GFR in ml/min

Nyman, U.; Almén, T.; Aspelin, P.; Hellström, M.; Kristiansson, M.; Sterner, Gunnar
December 2005
Acta Radiologica;Dec2005, Vol. 46 Issue 8, p830
Academic Journal
Purpose: To suggest a more precise tool when assessing the risk of contrast-medium-induced nephropathy (CIN), i.e. the ratio between contrast medium (CM) dose expressed in grams of iodine (g-I) and estimated glomerular filtration rate in ml/min (eGFR; based on equations using serum-creatinine (s-Cr), weight, height, age, and/or sex), here named I-dose/GFR ratio. Material and Methods: A Medline search of published CIN investigations reporting mean eGFR and mean dose of low-osmolality CM (LOCM) identified 10 randomized controlled prophylactic and 2 cohort coronary investigations, and 3 randomized and 1 cohort computed tomographic (CT) investigation. From the randomized trials, data were collected only from the placebo or control arms, unless there was no significant difference between the control and test groups. The mean I-dose/GFR ratio of each study was correlated with the mean frequency of CIN-1 (s-Cr rise?44.2 µmol/l or ?20–25%) and CIN-2 (oliguria or requiring dialysis). A maximum dose according to an I-dose/GFR ratio = 1 in patients with s-Cr ranging from 100 to 300 µmol/l was compared with that of Cigarroa's formula and with a “European consensus” threshold published by the European Society of Urogenital Radiology, both using s-Cr alone to predict renal function. McCullough's formula was used to assess the risk of CIN requiring dialysis at an I-dose/GFR ratio = 1 with LOCM. Results: The coronary investigations revealed a linear correlation with a correlation coefficient between the I-dose/GFR ratio and the frequency of CIN-1 and CIN-2 of 0.91 ( P < 0.001) and 0.84 ( P = 0.001), respectively. At a mean I-dose/GFR ratio = 1, the regression line indicated a 10% risk of CIN-1 and a 1% risk of CIN-2. At a mean I-dose/GFR ratio = 3, the risk of CIN-1 and CIN-2 increased to about 50% and 15%, respectively. Pooled weighted data from the CT investigations revealed a 12% risk of CIN-1 at a mean I-dose/GFR ratio = 1.1 and no cases...


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