Joffe, M.; Mindell, J.
December 2005
Occupational & Environmental Medicine;Dec2005, Vol. 62 Issue 12, p907
Academic Journal
This article focuses on the concepts and the procedure of health impact assessment (HIA). A person's health status is largely determined by factors outside the control of the healthcare sector. While some of these are fixed, such as inheritance, many are environmental in the broadest sense of the term. HIA, suggestively, is concerned with the health of populations. It generally attempts to predict the future health consequences, both positive and negative impacts, of an intervention such as a policy, program, or project. HIAs may be retrospective, concurrent, or prospective. Most HIAs are prospective and aim to predict the health consequences of a proposal before it has been implemented. An HIA can take place at any level, from local or regional to national or supranational. Ideally, it encompasses all aspects of physical, mental, and social health, including self-reported well-being, and considering positive health as well as the absence of illness. The HIA process comprises six main stages: screening; scoping; appraisal, also called risk assessment; formulation of recommendations and preparation of the report; submission of the report and recommendations to decision-makers; and monitoring and evaluation.


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