TITLE

Hyperchloraemic metabolic acidosis following open cardiac surgery

AUTHOR(S)
Hatherill, M.; Salie, S.; Waggie, Z.; Lawrenson, J.; Hewitson, J.; Reynolds, L.; Argent, A.
PUB. DATE
December 2005
SOURCE
Archives of Disease in Childhood;Dec2005, Vol. 90 Issue 12, p1288
SOURCE TYPE
Academic Journal
DOC. TYPE
Article
ABSTRACT
Aims: To describe acid-base derangements in children following open cardiac surgery on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), using the Fend-Stewart strong ion approach. Methods: Prospective observational study set in the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of a university children's hospital. Arterial blood gas parameters, serum electrolytes, strong ion difference, strong ion gap (SIG), and partitioned base excess (BE) were measured and calculated on admission to PICU. Results: A total of 97 children, median age 57 months (range 0.03-166), median weight 14 kg (range 2.1-50), were studied. Median CPB time was 80 minutes (range 17-232). Predicted mortality was 2% and there was a single non-survivor. These children showed mild metabolic acidosis (median standard bicarbonate 20.1 mmol/l, BE -5.1 mEq/l) characterised by hyperchloraemia (median corrected Cl 113 mmol/l), and hypoalbuminaemia (median albumin 30 g/l), but no significant excess unmeasured anions or cations (median SIG 0.7 mEq/l). The major determinants of the net BE were the chloride and albumin components (chloride effect -4.8 mEq/l, albumin effect +3.4 mEq/l). Metabolic acidosis occurred in 72 children (74%) but was not associated with increased morbidity. Hyperchloraemia was a causative factor in 53 children (74%) with metabolic acidosis. Three (4%) hyperchloraemic children required adrenaline for inotropic support, compared to eight children (28%) without hyperchloraemia. Hypoalbuminaemia was associated with longer duration of inotropic support and PICU stay. Conclusions: In these children with low mortality following open cardiac surgery, hypoalbuminaemia and hyperchloraemia were the predominant acid-base abnormalities. Hyperchloraemia was associated with reduced requirement for adrenaline therapy. It is suggested that hyperchloraemic metabolic acidosis is a benign phenomenon that should not prompt escalation of haemodynamic support. By contrast, hypoalbuminaemia, an alkalinising force, was associated with prolonged requirement for intensive care.
ACCESSION #
19125052

 

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