Criterion-Referenced Measurement: The World of Gray Versus Black and White

Proger, Barton B.; Mann, Lester
February 1973
Journal of Learning Disabilities;Feb1973, Vol. 6 Issue 2, p72
Academic Journal
For the learning disabled, individualization of instruction is of primary importance. Traditionally) individualized prescriptions for the learning disabled child have relied upon evaluation of the deficient and intact "processes" of the child, using standardized, or norm-referenced, measurement techniques (NRM). Educational prescriptions have then been posited on the basis of such intensive but traditional psychological evaluations. However, for the continuous (not once-and-done) and frequently occurring assessment of a child's educational progress, the relatively new system of measurement methodology known as criterion-referenced measurement (CRM) is more useful. Because the CRM trend is far too often neglected for special education in general and for the learning disabled in particular, this paper discusses three existing CRM systems, provides guidelines for building one's own CRM systems, and summarizes the advantages and difficulties of CRM for children with learning disabilities.


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