The Educational Diagnosis and Remediation of Written b and d Reversal Problems: A Case Study

Smith, Deborah Deutsch; Lovitt, Thomas C.
June 1973
Journal of Learning Disabilities;Jun/Jul1973, Vol. 6 Issue 6, p356
Academic Journal
This study reports the educational diagnosis, remediation, and folIowup of one child's writing reversal problem. By precisely examining the student's academic work, the experimenter discovered that his reversals were not pervasive but rather specific to two letters (b and d) in particular positions. Remediation tactics focused on the most frequent error: the initial d. Once this was corrected, there was no need to remediate written d in different positions or b in any position. In order to determine whether the learning of b and d carried over to other situations, two different conditions were presented to the child Again, there was no need to remediate written b or d. A post-hoc analysis of this boy`s writing revealed that for the remaining eight months of school he maintained a high rate of correctness (99%) in writing b and d.


Related Articles

  • College Learning Disabled Writer: Error Patterns and Instructional Alternatives. Gregg, Noel // Journal of Learning Disabilities;Jun/Jul1983, Vol. 16 Issue 6 

    Discusses the error patterns of college learning disabled, normal and basic writers and the instructional approaches to improve the written language skills of college learning disabled writers. Description of basic writers; Common mechanical errors found in the students; Instructional alternatives.

  • Coping with Dyslexia in the Regular Classroom: Inclusion or Exclusion. Richardson, Sylvia O. // Annals of Dyslexia;1996, Vol. 46, p37 

    The article begins with an historical review of the many attempts to cope with learning disabled and other handicapped children in schools, especially in regular classrooms. Children with dyslexia are reportedly the majority of individuals with learning disabilities. Most researchers have...

  • The Write Way. Marchisan, Marti L. // Intervention in School & Clinic;Jan2001, Vol. 36 Issue 3, p154 

    Features practical and specific strategies for helping students with writing difficulties become successful in various stages of writing process. Prewriting, writing, revising, and publishing; Additional support and guidance from the teachers of students with learning disabilities.

  • HANDWRITING MADE EASIER. Schriber Ortoff, Susan N. // Instructor;Jan/Feb2006, Vol. 115 Issue 5, p46 

    The article presents some of the most common handwriting problems faced by school children and how teachers can help address these problems. Children have trouble with alignment and line awareness, the size of letters and case consistency. Sometimes children have poor pencil grasp which makes...

  • Modern Concepts of Handwriting. Topetzes, Nick John // Education;Mar1960, Vol. 80 Issue 7, p389 

    The article points ways for effective teaching of writing in schools in the U.S. Despite advances in technology, schools are obligated to prepare children to write sufficiently well to satisfy their adult needs in the business and social worlds. Writing is a functional activity that enables...

  • Reflections on the Teaching of Handwriting. Cole, Luella // Education Digest;Feb1957, Vol. 22 Issue 6, p40 

    The article focuses on the instructional process and teaching of handwriting. Teaching of handwriting poses difficulties and these results from fundamental misconceptions about the nature of handwriting, which differs from reading and arithmetic because it consists of muscular skills, not of...

  • Teaching Writing Is Hard Enough: Stop Doing Dumb Things. Culham, Ruth // Reading Today;Apr/May2014, Vol. 31 Issue 5, p29 

    The article focuses on teaching children to write well. It is suggested to pay attention to when students groan when they have to be dragged through the writing process and when they don't want to write for starters. It is mentioned that every writer is inspired by using reading to teach...

  • Teaching and Learning the Craft of Handwriting. Lehman, Charles // Education Digest;May1980, Vol. 45 Issue 9, p50 

    This article presents suggestions on teaching the craft of handwriting. To teach handwriting, most American teachers of primary grades drill students in drawing letters assembled from a limited number of "easy-to-imitate" geometric shapes. But pure circles and vertical lines are not easy to...

  • Multisensory approaches for teaching handwriting to learning-disabled children. Reis, Elizabeth M. // Journal of Instructional Psychology;Dec90, Vol. 17 Issue 4, p190 

    Discusses four approaches that can be used to teach handwriting to the learning disabled. Copying of correct manuscript letter formation from a live model; Correct production of `b' and `d' reversals; Correct usage of upper case manuscript formations; Production of legible cursive writing by...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics