Secondary Abdominal Compartment Syndrome: Risk Factors and Outcomes

Britt, R. C.; Gannon, T.; Collins, J. N.; Cole, F. J.; Weireter, L. J.; Britt, L. D.
November 2005
American Surgeon;Nov/2005, Vol. 71 Issue 11, p982
Academic Journal
Secondary abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS), defined as intra-abdominal hypertension with associated pulmonary, renal, or hemodynamic compromise in the absence of preceding abdominal operation or injury, can markedly increase surgical morbidity and mortality. We performed a retrospective chart review of the physiologic parameters and outcomes of 10 patients with secondary ACS. Ten patients developed secondary ACS after aggressive resuscitation, at an average of 20.2 hours. Four of the patients sustained burns greater than 40 per cent, three of the patients had penetrating extremity trauma, one patient had blunt abdominal trauma, one patient was struck by lightning, and one patient developed a retroperitoneal bleed while on heparin. The average bladder pressure was 40.6. The average volume given in the first 24 hours was 33,001 cc (range, 12,400 to 69,000). The average base deficit at admission was -12 (range, +1 to -25). Seven of the 10 patients had decreased urine output. Nine of the 10 patients had decreased tidal volumes on pressure control ventilation. All 10 patients were hypotensive, with 7 of the 10 requiring vasopressors. Overall mortality was 60 per cent, with 43 per cent mortality for those decompressed. Prompt recognition and treatment are mandatory for survival of ACS. We recommend routine bladder pressure monitoring for patients with ongoing resuscitation greater than 500 cc/hr.


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