Peeters, T. L.
November 2005
Gut;Nov2005, Vol. 54 Issue 11, p1638
Academic Journal
Ghrelin is the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), present on pituitary cells secreting growth hormone. Ghrelin and motilin, and GHS-R and the motilin receptor, are structurally related. Surprisingly, ghrelin is most abundant in the stomach, and GHS-R is also present in the stomach and in other organs and tissues, suggesting effects beyond stimulation of growth hormone in the pituitary, and in particular in the regulation of gastrointestinal function. However, as yet ghrelin seems rather a signal by which the digestive system regulates functions other than the digestive process itself. The most important role of ghrelin appears to be stimulation of appetite and regulation of energy homeostasis, favouring adiposity, and thus contributing to obesity. As recently suggested, ghrelin may therefore be called the "saginary" (fattening) peptide. Ghrelin may affect gastric acid secretion and gastroprotection but the suggested role of ghrelin in Helicobacter pylori infection implicates again the saginary effect. Ghrelin is functionally related to motilin as it also stimulates gastrointestinal motility. In rodents, ghrelin may have taken over the function of motilin, as rodents are natural motilin knockouts. Ghrelin appears to be an endocrine signal, possibly reaching the central nervous system via the bloodstream. However, it also uses neural pathways, in particular the vagus. A better understanding of the physiology of ghrelin may lead to new therapeutic approaches in the treatment of obesity and hypomotility syndromes.


Related Articles

  • Influence of short- and long-term treadmill exercises on levels of ghrelin, obestatin and NPY in plasma and brain extraction of obese rats. Jun Wang; Chen Chen; Rui-Yuan Wang // Endocrine (1355008X);Apr2008, Vol. 33 Issue 1, p77 

    Abstract  This study aims to clarify the effects of exercise on levels of appetite regulatory hormones in plasma and hypothalamus of obese rats. Diet-induced obese rats undergo short- (40 min) and long-term (40 min, 5 days/week for 8 weeks) exercises. The rats ran at a speed of...

  • Unacylated Ghrelin Induces Oxidative Stress Resistance in a Glucose Intolerance and Peripheral Artery Disease Mouse Model by Restoring Endothelial Cell miR-126 Expression. Togliatto, Gabriele; Trombetta, Antonella; Dentelli, Patrizia; Gallo, Sara; Rosso, Arturo; Cotogni, Paolo; Granata, Riccarda; Falcioni, Rita; Delale, Thomas; Ghigo, Ezio; Brizzi, Maria Felice // Diabetes;Apr2015, Vol. 64 Issue 4, p1370 

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are crucial in long-term diabetes complications, including peripheral artery disease (PAD). In this study, we have investigated the potential clinical impact of unacylated ghrelin (UnAG) in a glucose intolerance and PAD mouse model. We demonstrate that UnAG is able...

  • Increased Carbohydrate Induced Ghrelin Secretion in Obese vs. Normal-weight Adolescent Girls. Misra, Madhusmita; Tsai, Patrika M.; Mendes, Nara; Miller, Karen K.; Klibanski, Anne // Obesity (19307381);Sep2009, Vol. 17 Issue 9, p1689 

    Orexigenic and anorexigenic pathways mediate food intake and may be affected by meal composition. Our objective was to determine whether changes in levels of active ghrelin and peptide YY (PYY) differ in obese vs. normal-weight adolescent girls following specific macronutrient intake and predict...

  • Anti-ghrelin Spiegelmer NOX-B11 inhibits neurostimulatory and orexigenic effects of peripheral ghrelin in rats. Kobelt, P.; Helmling, S.; Stengel, A.; Wlotzka, B.; Andresen, V.; Klapp, B. F.; Wiedenmann, B.; Klussmann, S.; Mönnikes, H. // Gut;Jun2006, Vol. 55 Issue 6, p788 

    Background and aims: Ghrelin, the natural ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1 a, is the most powerful peripherally active orexigenic agent known. In rodents, ghrelin administration stimulates growth hormone release, food intake, and adiposity. Because of these effects, blocking...

  • Mice lacking ghrelin receptors resist the development of diet-induced obesity. Zigman, Jeffrey M.; Nakano, Yoshihide; Coppari, Roberto; Balthasar, Nina; Marcus, Jacob N.; Lee, Charlotte E.; Jones, Juli E.; Deysher, Amy E.; Waxman, Amanda R.; White, Ryan D.; Williams, Todd D.; Lachey, Jennifer L.; Seeley, Randy J.; Lowell, Bradford B.; Elmquist, Joel K. // Journal of Clinical Investigation;Dec2005, Vol. 115 Issue 12, p3564 

    Ghrelin is the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR; ghrelin receptor). Since its discovery, accumulating evidence has suggested that ghrelin may play a role in signaling and reversing states of energy insufficiency. For example, ghrelin levels rise following food...

  • Gut and mind. Neary, N.M.; Small, C.J.; Bloom, S.R. // Gut;Jul2003, Vol. 52 Issue 7, p918 

    Obesity is a growing epidemic, causally associated with a number of serious medical conditions, including diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, and several cancers. The gut hormones ghrelin and peptide YY are secreted from the gut in response to changes to nutritional status. While food...

  • Ghrelin.  // Encyclopedic Reference of Molecular Pharmacology;2004, p403 

    A definition of the term "ghrelin" is presented. It refers to a 28 amino acid peptide predominantly produced by the stomach, with substantially lower amounts derived from bowel, pancreas, kidney, placenta, pituitary and hypothalamus. The peptide has a strong growth hormone-releasing activity. It...

  • Yin and Yang - the Gastric X/A-like Cell as Possible Dual Regulator of Food Intake. Stengel, Andreas; Taché, Yvette // Journal of Neurogastroenterology & Motility;2012, Vol. 18 Issue 2, p138 

    Ingestion of food affects secretion of hormones from enteroendocrine cells located in the gastrointestinal mucosa. These hormones are involved in the regulation of various gastrointestinal functions including the control of food intake. One cell in the stomach, the X/A-like has received much...

  • Inhibition of Food Intake in Obese Subjects by Peptide YY. Batterham, Rachel L.; Cohen, Mark A.; Ellis, Sandra M.; Le Roux, Carel W.; Withers, Dominic J.; Frost, Gary S.; Ghatei, Mohammad A.; Bloom, Stephen R. // New England Journal of Medicine;9/4/2003, Vol. 349 Issue 10, p941 

    Background: The gut hormone fragment peptide YY3–36 (PYY) reduces appetite and food intake when infused into subjects of normal weight. In common with the adipocyte hormone leptin, PYY reduces food intake by modulating appetite circuits in the hypothalamus. However, in obesity there is a...


Read the Article


Sign out of this library

Other Topics