Determination of phenols in waters using micro-pumped multicommutation and spectrophotometric detection: an automated alternative to the standard procedure

Ródenas-Torralba, Eva; Morales-Rubio, Ángel; De la Guardia, Miguel
September 2005
Analytical & Bioanalytical Chemistry;Sep2005, Vol. 383 Issue 1, p138
Academic Journal
An automated and greener spectrophotometric procedure has been developed for the determination of phenol in water at 700 nm. The method uses the reaction between phenol, sodium nitroprusside, and hydroxylamine hydrochloride in a buffered medium at pH 12.3. The flow manifold comprises four solenoid micro-pumps employed for sample and reagent introduction into the reaction coil and to transport the colored product formed to the detector. The linear dynamic range was 50–3,500 ng mL−1 ( R = 0.99997; n = 6) and the method provided a limit of detection (3 σ) of 13 ng mL−1. The sampling throughput was estimated to be 65 measurements per hour and the coefficient of variation was 0.5% ( n = 10) for a 1.0 μg mL−1 phenol concentration. Recoveries of 92–105% were obtained for phenol determination in spiked water samples at concentration levels from 50 to 5,000 ng mL−1. The use of multicommutation reduced the reagent consumption 25-fold, the sample consumption 225-fold, and the waste generation 30-fold compared with the batch procedure. The proposed method is an environmentally friendly alternative to the official 4-aminoantipyrine method since it avoids the use of chloroform.


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