Neuron-Astrocyte Interactions: Partnership for Normal Function and Disease in the Central Nervous System

Benarroch, Eduardo E.
October 2005
Mayo Clinic Proceedings;Oct2005, Vol. 80 Issue 10, p1326
Academic Journal
Interactions between neurons and astrocytes are critical for signaling, energy metabolism, extracellular ion homeostasis, volume regulation, and neuroprotection in the central nervous system. Astrocytes face the synapses, send end-foot processes that enwrap the brain capillaries, and form an extensive network inter-connected by gap junctions. Astrocytes express several membrane proteins and enzymes that are critical for uptake of glutamate at the synapses, ammonia detoxification, buffering of extracellular K+, and volume regulation. They also participate in detection, propagation, and modulation of excitatory synaptic signals, provide metabolic support to the active neurons, and contribute to functional hyperemia in the active brain tissue. Disturbances of these neuron-astrocyte interactions are likely to play an important role in neurologic disorders including cerebral ischemia, neurodegeneration, migraine, cerebral edema, and hepatic encephalopathy.


Related Articles

  • Mechanisms of Astrocyte-Mediated Cerebral Edema. Stokum, Jesse; Kurland, David; Gerzanich, Volodymyr; Simard, J. // Neurochemical Research;Feb2015, Vol. 40 Issue 2, p317 

    Cerebral edema formation stems from disruption of blood brain barrier (BBB) integrity and occurs after injury to the CNS. Due to the restrictive skull, relatively small increases in brain volume can translate into impaired tissue perfusion and brain herniation. In excess, cerebral edema can be...

  • Low Doses of Carbon Monoxide Protect Against Experimental Focal Brain Ischemia. Zeynalov, Emil; Doré, Sylvain // Neurotoxicity Research;2009, Vol. 15 Issue 2, p133 

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is associated with central nervous system toxicity. However, evidence also indicates that CO can be protective, depending on its concentration. To determine if CO can be neuroprotective after ischemic brain injury, we subjected mice to transient middle cerebral artery...

  • Neuroscience: Restricted astrocytes. Swami, Meera // Nature Medicine;Aug2012, Vol. 18 Issue 8, p1192 

    The article presents information on astrocytes, a type of glial cell responsible for many neurological functions and highlights that these cells localized to central nervous system have potential to understand region-specific brain functions.

  • Aquaporin Water Channels in Central Nervous System. Lehmann, Guillermo L.; Gradilone, Sergio A.; Marinelli, Ra�l A. // Current Neurovascular Research;Oct2004, Vol. 1 Issue 4, p293 

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are a family of water-selective channels that provide a major pathway for osmotically driven water transport through cell membranes. Some members of the aquaporin family have been identified in the central nervous system (CNS). The water channel aquaporin 1 (AQP1) is restricted...

  • Astrocytes: Targets for Neuroprotection in Stroke. Barreto, George; White, Robin E.; Yibing Ouyang; Lijun Xu; Giffard, Rona G. // Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry;Jun2011, Vol. 11 Issue 2, p164 

    No abstract available.

  • Targeting S100B in Cerebral Ischemia and in Alzheimer's Disease. Mori, Takashi; Asano, Takao; Town, Terrence // Cardiovascular Psychiatry & Neurology;2010, p1 

    S100B is an EF-hand calcium-binding protein that exerts both intracellular and extracellular effects on a variety of cellular processes. The protein is predominantly expressed in the central nervous system by astrocytes, both physiologically and during the course of neurological disease. In the...

  • Aquaporin 4: a player in cerebral edema and neuroinflammation. Fukuda, Andrew M.; Badaut, Jerome // Journal of Neuroinflammation;2012, Vol. 9 Issue 1, p279 

    Neuroinflammation is a common pathological event observed in many different brain diseases, frequently associated with blood brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction and followed by cerebral edema. Neuroinflammation is characterized with microglia activation and astrogliosis, which is a hypertrophy of...

  • A High Throughput Screen Identifies Chemical Modulators of the Laminin-Induced Clustering of Dystroglycan and Aquaporin-4 in Primary Astrocytes. Noël, Geoffroy; Stevenson, Sarah; Moukhles, Hakima // PLoS ONE;2011, Vol. 6 Issue 3, p1 

    Background: Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) constitutes the principal water channel in the brain and is clusteredat the perivascular astrocyte endfeet. This specific distribution of AQP4 plays a major role in maintaining water homeostasis in the brain. A growing body of evidence points to a role ofthe...

  • Recovery of neurological function of ischemic stroke by application of conditioned medium of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells derived from normal and cerebral ischemia rats. May-Jywan Tsai; Shen-Kou Tsai; Bo-Ruei Hu; Dann-Ying Liou; Shih-Ling Huang; Ming-Chao Huang; Wen-Cheng Huang; Henrich Cheng; Shiang-Suo Huang // Journal of Biomedical Science;2014, Vol. 21 Issue 1, p1 

    Background Several lines of evidence have demonstrated that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC) release bioactive factors and provide neuroprotection for CNS injury. However, it remains elusive whether BM-MSC derived from healthy donors or stroke patients provides equal...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics