Modulation of human dendritic cell phenotype and function by probiotic bacteria

Hart, A. L.; Lammers, K.; Brigidi, P.; Vitali, B.; Rizzello, F.; Gionchetti, P.; Campieri, M.; Kamm, M. A.; Knight, S. C.; Stagg, A. J.
December 2004
Gut;Dec2004, Vol. 53 Issue 12, p1602
Academic Journal
Background: "Probiotic" bacteria are effective in treating some inflammatory bowel diseases. However which bacteria confer benefit and mechanisms of action remain poorly defined. Dendritic cells, which are pivotal in early bacterial recognition, tolerance induction, and shaping of T cell responses, may be central in mediating the effects of these bacteria. Aims: To assess effects of different probiotic bacteria on dendritic cell function. Methods: Human intestinal lamina propria mononuclear cells, whole blood, or an enriched blood dendritic cell population were cultured with cell wall components of the eight bacterial strains in the probiotic preparation VSL#3 (four lactobacilli, three bifidobacteria, and one streptococcal strains). Dendritic cells were identified and changes in dendritic cell maluration/costimulatory markers and cytokine production in response to probiotic bacteria were analysed by multicolour flow cytometry, in addition to subsequent effects on T cell polarisation. Results: VSL#3 was a potent inducer of IL-10 by dendritic cells from blood and intestinal tissue, and inhibited generation of Th1 cells. Individual strains within VSL#3 displayed distinct immunomodulatory effects on dendritic cells; the most marked anti-inflammatory effects were produced by bifidobacteria strains which upregulated IL-10 production by dendritic cells, decreased expression of the costimulatory molecule CD80, and decreased interferon-γ production by T cells. VSL#3 diminished proinflammatory effects of LPS by decreasing LPS induced production of IL-12 while maintaining IL-10 production. Conclusions: Probiotic bacteria differ in their immunomodulatory activity and influence polarisation of immune responses at the earliest stage of antigen presentation by dendritic cells.


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