Dry eye: prevalence and attributable risk factors in a hospital-based population

Sahai, Anshu; Malik, Pankaj
June 2005
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology;Jun2005, Vol. 53 Issue 2, p87
Academic Journal
journal article
Purpose: To study the prevalence of dry eye in a hospital-based population and to evaluate the various risk factors attributable to dry eye.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 500 patients above 20 years of age were screened randomly for dry eye. A 13-point questionnaire, Lissamine Green test, Tear film break-up time (TBUT), Schirmer's test and presence of strands/filaments were used to diagnose dry eye. The diagnosis was made when at least three of the tests were positive. The role of air pollution, sunlight, excessive winds, smoking, drugs and refractive status as dry eye risk factors was assessed.Results: Ninety-two (18.4%) patients had dry eye. Dry eye prevalence was maximum in those above 70 years of age (36.1%) followed by the age group 31-40 years (20%). It was significantly higher (P = 0.024) in females (22.8%) than in males (14.9%), more common in rural residents (19.6%) than in urban (17.5%) and highest among farmers/labourers (25.3%). A 2.15 fold increase was found in the odds for dry eye in those exposed to excessive wind, 1.91 fold to sunlight exposure, 1.42 to smoking, 1.38 to air pollution and 2.04 for persons on drugs. Dry eye prevalence was 14% in emmetropes, 16.8% in myopes and 22.9% in hypermetropes. It was 15.6% in those with corrected and 25.3% in those with uncorrected refractive errors.Conclusion: Dry eye is an under-diagnosed ocular disorder. Reduction in the modifiable risk factors of dry eye is essential to reduce its prevalence.


Related Articles

  • Exacerbation of signs and symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis by a controlled adverse environment challenge in subjects with a history of dry eye and ocular allergy. Gomes, Paulo J.; Ousler, George W.; Welch, Donna L.; Smith, Lisa M.; Coderre, Jeffrey; Abelson, Mark B. // Clinical Ophthalmology;2013, Vol. 7, p157 

    Background: The goal of this study was to assess the effect of a controlled adverse environment (CAE) challenge on subjects with both allergic conjunctivitis and dry eye. Methods: Thirty-three subjects were screened and 17 completed this institutional review board-approved study. Subjects...

  • Ocular Workup Helps Detect Rare Cancer. Larson, Ben // Review of Optometry;06/15/2000, Vol. 137 Issue 6, p103 

    Presents a case report on the role of a thorough retinal examination in the detection of hemangiomas. Use of a dilated fundus examination to reveal segmented feeder vessels; Referral of the patient to a retinal specialist for argon laser photocoagulation; Clinical picture of Von Hippel-Lindau...

  • Prevalence of ocular manifestations in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. Urban Geisthoff; Klaus Ruprecht // Graefe's Archive of Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology;Aug2007, Vol. 245 Issue 8, p1141 

    Abstract Background  Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a systemic disorder of the fibrovascular tissue. Few data have been published on the frequency of ophthalmologic manifestations. The aim of this study was to assess this frequency. Methods  A...

  • Cutaneous complaints can be tip-off to ocular Rosacea. Kuznar, Wayne // Dermatology Times;Oct97, Vol. 18 Issue 10, p21 

    Presents information on the diagnosis of cutaneous complaints to determine the occurrence of ocular rosacea. Theories about the etiology of ocular rosacea; Clinical manifestation; Treatment and medications. INSETS: Tip-offs to ocular Rosacea: Common complaints.;Clinical presentations of ocular...

  • Epithelial Basement Membrane Dystrophy.  // Review of Optometry;1/15/2007 Supplement, Vol. 144, p11 

    The article offers information about epithelial basement membrane dystrophy (EBMD), the most commonly encountered corneal dystrophy in clinical practice. Several risk factors of EBMD include previous ocular injury and dry eye. Mild cases of the symptoms may be completely unaware of its...

  • Lung and eye involvement in X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. Dietz, J.; Kaercher, T.; Schneider, A. T.; Zimmermann, T.; Huttner, K.; Johnson, R.; Schneider, H. // Head & Face Medicine;2012 Supplement 1, Vol. 8 Issue Supplment 1, p1 

    The article presents an overview of a study on the respiratory and ocular symptoms in patients with X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED) or ectodysplasin deficiency, which was discussed at the 5th International Conference on Ectodermal Dysplasia in Erlangen, Germany from June 1 to...

  • When Allergy and Dry Eye Collide. Mangan, Richard B. // Review of Optometry;8/15/2009, Vol. 146 Issue 8, p49 

    The article provides information on the challenges and symptoms of patients who are saddled with concurrent allergy and dry eye syndromes. It notes that the prevalence of allergic rhinitis (AR) has rapidly increased and affected 20 percent of adult populations in the U.S. It cites the case of a...

  • Beneath the Surface: Dry Eye's Link to Systemic Disease. Kabiri, Alexander J.; Singh, Devin; Cooper, Michael S. // Review of Optometry;Sep2014, Vol. 151 Issue 9, p74 

    The article discusses about identifying treatment and developing a team based approach medical specialties when treating ocular surface disease in patients. Topics included are dry eye diseases developing into ocular surface scarring and infection by bacteria, hormones like glucagon and...

  • Dry eye symptom severity and persistence are associated with symptoms of neuropathic pain. Galor, Anat; Zlotcavitch, Leonid; Walter, Scott D.; Felix, Elizabeth R.; Feuer, William; Martin, Eden R.; Margolis, Todd P.; Sarantopoulos, Konstantinos D.; Levitt, Roy C. // British Journal of Ophthalmology;May2015, Vol. 99 Issue 5, p665 

    Objective Studies of patients with non-ocular pain suggest that it is therapeutically useful to identify those with features of neuropathic pain. No data is available, however, on whether this approach has similar utility in dry eye. The purpose of this study was to determine whether severity...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics