Atypical forms of isolated partial atrioventricular septal defect increase the risk of initial valve replacement and reoperation

Aubert, Stéphane; Henaine, Roland; Raisky, Olivier; Chavanis, Nicolas; Robin, Jacques; Ecochard, René; Ninet, Jean
August 2005
European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery;Aug2005, Vol. 28 Issue 2, p223
Academic Journal
Abstract: Objective: We consider the short- and long-term outcomes of the repair of the isolated partial atrioventricular (AV) septal defect to determine the role played by the atypical forms on the initial AV valve replacement and on the risk of reoperation. Methods: Two hundred and eight patients underwent an operation for this malformation between 1974 and 2001. Clinical and echocardiographic examinations were performed on all patients, the AV valve regurgitation was graded from 1 to 4 and a residual interatrial shunt was sought. Median age at the intervention was 5.8 years (3 months to 67 years). Results: Median follow-up time was 7.5 years (range 0–22.6 years). The cumulative 30-day, 5- and 20-year survival rates were 96.5, 95.4 and 94.6%, respectively. AV valve replacement was associated with a high mortality (P<0.001). A reoperation was performed on 12 patients (5.7%) including six patients within less than a 30-day period, especially to repair residual AV valve regurgitation. We performed four AV valve repairs by annuloplasty and six AV valve replacements. Two patients who had initially undergone an AV valve replacement underwent a reoperation for valve thrombosis. The cumulative 30-day, 5- and 20-year rates of freedom from reoperation were 96.5, 93.6 and 83%, respectively. An atypical form was present in 24 patients (11.5%) and was a risk factor for initial AV valve replacement (P<0.001) and for reoperation (P<0.001). A complete AV block occurred in 13 patients (6.2%), all of them within a 30-day period. The AV valve replacement was a high risk factor for a complete AV block (P<0.001). At the end of our study 180 patients (96%) were in NYHA I and 8 in NYHA II. Conclusions: The morbi-mortality of the isolated partial AV septal defect is primarily perioperative and is linked with the presence of an atypical form of the lesion. This atypical form was the main reason for reoperation for AV valve regurgitation. The AV valve replacement was associated with a high mortality and with the occurrence of complete AV block. Using a standardized technique, the AV septal defect can be repaired with excellent long-term clinical and echographic results.


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