Chakravarti, A.; Rawat, D.; Jain, M.
April 2005
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology;Apr2005, Vol. 23 Issue 2, p128
Academic Journal
The purpose of this study was to determine the age wise prevalence of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) in children under five years and to analyze the relative importance of horizontal or vertical transmission. This study included 400 children in the age group of less than five years attending the outpatient department of pediatrics with minor complaints. History of HBV immunization was taken as the exclusion criteria. All the samples were tested for Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti HBs using commercial ELISA kits. Liver function tests were performed on all the HBsAg positive patients. Hepatits B nucleocapsid antigen (HBeAg) was detected in few HBsAg positive mothers. Overall HBsAg positivity in children below five years was 2.25%. There was no statistically significant difference in HBsAg positivity in the different age groups by chi square test. HBsAg positivity in mothers was 4.25%. However only in three cases the pair of mother and child were both positive for HBsAg. The mean anti HBs positivity in children was 23.75%. There was no statistically significant difference in the anti HBs positivity in different age groups of children. The observation that there is no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of HBV infection (HBsAg and HBs) amongst different age groups of children below five years signifies that a large proportion of HBV infection in children of this age is acquired via vertical transmission. It is also indicated that this mode of disease transmission is responsible for the majority of chronic carriers. Universal immunization of all infants is desirable to decrease the carrier pool and it is inferred from the present study that Hepatitis B immunization should begin at birth to have greater impact.


Related Articles

  • Community transmission of hepatitis B virus in Egypt: results from a case-control study in Greater Cairo. Adela Paez Jimenez; Noha Sharaf El-Din; Mostafa El-Hoseiny; Mai El-Daly; Mohamed Abdel-Hamid; Saeed El Aidi; Yehia Sultan; Nasr El-Sayed; Mostafa Kamal Mohamed; Arnaud Fontanet // International Journal of Epidemiology;Jun2009, Vol. 38 Issue 3, p757 

    Background To identify current risk factors for hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission in Greater Cairo. Methods A 1:1 matched case–control study was conducted in two ‘fever’ hospitals in Cairo. Acute hepatitis B cases were patients with acute hepatitis, positive HBs antigen,...

  • Treatment of children persistently infected with hepatitis B virus: seroconversion or suppression. Nicola Price; Elizabeth H. Boxall // Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (JAC);Dec2007, Vol. 60 Issue 6, p1189 

    We have reviewed the current strategies regarding the treatment of persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) in children and compared these with adult strategies. The options for achieving suppression of viral DNA replication versus hepatitis B e antigen to antibody seroconversion have been evaluated....

  • Hepatitis B surface antigenemia in chronic hemodialysis patients: effect of hepatitis B immunization Ly, David; Yee Jr., Hal F.; Brezina, Maria; Martin, Paul; Gitnick, Gary; Saab, Sammy // American Journal of Gastroenterology;Jan2002, Vol. 97 Issue 1, p138 

    OBJECTIVE:Hemodialysis patients with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) are considered to have the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and are segregated to limit transmission. However, transient de novo HBsAg has been identified in hemodialysis patients shortly after vaccination. Our hypothesis is that...

  • Diseases of the alimentary system. Woolf, I.L.; Williams, Roger // British Medical Journal;10/2/1976, Vol. 2 Issue 6039, p807 

    Describes hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive patients. Evidence of chronic liver disease in patients; Impairment of the immune response to hepatitis B viral antigens; Presence of HBsAg in asymptotic people without a history of hepatitis or signs of chronic liver disease.

  • Long Term Effects of One or Two Doses of Hepatitis B Vaccine in Adults After Five Years. Ghorbani, Gholam Ali; Alavian, Seyed Moaied; Ghadimi, Hamid Reza // Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences;2008, Vol. 11 Issue 4, p660 

    The aim of this study is to evaluate hepatitis B vaccine protection in those adults who have taken one or two does of vaccine before. It was a retrospective cross sectional study was conducted on fifty-six military personnel in Tehran, Iran in the spring 2007. Demographic data such as age,...

  • Hepatitis B incidence among South Asian children in England and Wales: implications for immunisation policy. Hahn'' S; Ramsay M; Soldan K; Balogun K; Mortimer P // Archives of Disease in Childhood;Dec2003, Vol. 88 Issue 12, p1082 

    The incidence of acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is higher among South Asian than among non-South Asian UK residents, and infections in South Asians occur more often during childhood. The UK's immunisation policy should be changed to protect ethnic minority children against HBV infection.

  • Immunization coverage and risk factors for failure to immunize within the Expanded Programme on Immunization in Kenya after introduction of new Haemophilus influenzae type b and hepatitis b virus antigens. Ndiritu, Moses; Cowgill, Karen D; Ismail, Amina; Chiphatsi, Salome; Kamau, Tatu; Fegan, Gregory; Feikin, Daniel R.; Newton, Charles R. J. C.; Scott, J. Anthony G. // BMC Public Health;2006, Vol. 6 Issue 1, p1 

    Background: Kenya introduced a pentavalent vaccine including the DTP, Haemophilus influenzae type b and hepatitis b virus antigens in Nov 2001 and strengthened immunization services. We estimated immunization coverage before and after introduction, timeliness of vaccination and risk factors for...

  • Universal Neonatal Hepatitis B Immunization--Are We Jumping on the Bandwagon Too Early? Ganiats, Theodore G.; Bowersox, Michael T.; Ralph, Lee P. // Journal of Family Practice;Feb1993, Vol. 36 Issue 2, p147 

    The authors reflect on the reasonableness of the routine immunization of all newborns for hepatitis B virus (HBV) in the U.S. They find the logic of immunizing all infants to eliminate HBV transmission among adults to be frail. As many organizations create conflicting practice guidelines, they...

  • Survey of HBsAg-positive pregnant women and their infants regarding measures to prevent maternal-infantile transmission. Yan Guo; Jianqiong Liu; Liping Meng; Hu Meina; Yukai Du // BMC Infectious Diseases;2010, Vol. 10 Issue 1, p26 

    Background: Intrauterine infection is the main contributor to maternal-infantile transmission of HBV. This is a retrospective study of 158 HBsAg-positive pregnant women who delivered children from Jan 1st, 2004 to Dec.31th, 2006 in Wuhan City, China. We investigated the measures taken to prevent...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics