Leucocyte filtration during cardiopulmonary reperfusion in coronary artery bypass surgery

Baksaas, S.T.; Flom-Halvorsen, H.I.; Øvrum, E.; Videm, V.; Mollnes, T.E.; Brosstad, F.; Svennevig, J.L.
March 1999
Perfusion;1999, Vol. 14 Issue 2, p107
Academic Journal
Postoperative organ dysfunction after cardiac operations has been related to the damaging effects of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). These complications are considered to be mediated partly by complement activation and subsequent activation of leucocytes due to the contact between blood and the large nonendothelial surfaces in the bypass circuit. Removal of leucocytes by filtration during the reperfusion period may potentially reduce the postoperative morbidity after CPB. Forty patients undergoing elective, primary coronary artery bypass grafting were randomized to initial identical bypass circuits until the aortic crossclamp was released. Then, the ordinary arterial line filter was closed and either a leucocyte depletion filter (n = 20), or a control filter (n = 20) was incorporated in the circuits during the reperfusion period of CPB. Blood samples were drawn at fixed intervals and analysed for white blood cell and platelet counts, plasma concentration of myeloperoxidase, C3-complement activation products, the terminal complement complex, and interleukins (IL)-6 and -8. The numbers of circulating white blood cells in the leucocyte-depleted group decreased during the reperfusion period from 5.5 (4.8–6.8) to 5.3 (4.4–6.2) × 10[sup 9]/l, and increased in the control group from 6.5 (5.1–8.0) to 7.4 (5.7–9.0) × 10[sup 9]/l. Two hours postoperatively the total white blood cell count in the leucocyte-depleted group was 14.7 (12.1–17.2) × 10[sup 9]/l, and in the control group 17.6 (14.5–20.7) × 10[sup 9]/l. The differences between the groups were statistical significant (p = 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences between the groups with regard to other test parameters or clinical data. We conclude that the use of leucocyte filters during the reperfusion period in elective coronary artery bypass surgery significantly reduced the number of circulating leucocytes, whereas no effects were seen for granulocyte activation measured as myeloperoxidase release, platelet counts, complement activation, or IL-6 and -8 release. The clinical benefit of leucocyte filters in routine or high risk patients remains to be demonstrated and is suggested to be dependent on both the efficacy and the biocompatibility of the filters.


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