ZnO nanopencils: Efficient field emitters

Wang, R. C.; Liu, C. P.; Huang, J. L.; Chen, S.-J.; Tseng, Y.-K.; Kung, S.-C.
July 2005
Applied Physics Letters;7/4/2005, Vol. 87 Issue 1, p013110
Academic Journal
ZnO nanopencils were synthesized on a silicon wafer without catalysts at a low temperature of 550 ° C through a simple two-step pressure controlled thermal evaporation. Penholders were well-hexagonal faceted and the diameter of pen tips on the nanopencils was in the range of 20–30 nm. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy shows that the nanopencils were single crystals growing along the [0001] direction and the pen tips subtend a small angle with multiple surface perturbations. Field-emission measurements on the nanopencils show a low turn-on field of 3.7 V/μm at a current density of 10 μA/cm2. The emission current density reached 1.3 mA/cm2 at an applied field of 4.6 V/μm. The emission at the low field is attributed to the sharp tip and surface perturbations on the nanopencils.


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