TITLE

BACTERIAL INTERACTIONS WITH CELLS OF THE INTESTINAL MUCOSA: TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS AND NOD2

AUTHOR(S)
Cario, E.
PUB. DATE
August 2005
SOURCE
Gut;Aug2005, Vol. 54 Issue 8, p1182
SOURCE TYPE
Academic Journal
DOC. TYPE
Article
ABSTRACT
Toll-like receptors (TLR) and NOD2 are emerging as key mediators of innate host defence in the intestinal mucosa, crucially involved in maintaining mucosal as well as commensal homeostasis. Recent observations suggest new (patho-) physiological mechanisms of how functional versus dysfunctional TLRx/NOD2 pathways may oppose or favour inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In health, TLRX signalling protects the intestinal epithelial barrier and confers commensal tolerance whereas NOD2 signalling exerts antimicrobial activity and prevents pathogenic invasion. In disease, aberrant TLRx and/or NOD2 signalling may stimulate diverse inflammatory responses leading to acute and chronic intestinal inflammation with many different clinical phenotypes.
ACCESSION #
17814020

 

Related Articles

  • Gatekeepers of intestinal inflammation. Heather Arnett; Joanne Viney // Inflammation Research;Jan2010, Vol. 59 Issue 1, p1 

    Abstract  The intestine is subjected to a barrage of insults from food, bacterial flora, and pathogens. Despite this constant antigenic challenge, the mucosal tissues lining the intestinal tract remain largely under control. The mechanisms regulating the homeostatic balance in the gut have...

  • Induction of T lymphocyte apoptosis by sulphasalazine in patients with Crohn's disease. Doering, J.; Begue, B.; Lentze, M. J.; Rieux-Laucat, F.; Goulet, O.; Schmitz, J.; Cerf-Bensussan, N.; Ruemmele, F. M. // Gut;Dec2004, Vol. 53 Issue 12, p1632 

    Background: lamina propria T lymphocytes (LPL) of the intestinal mucosa are chronically activated in Crohn's disease (CD). Defective apoptosis of activated LPL was proposed as a key pathogenic mechanism. In fact, increased expression of antiapoptotic molecules was observed in CD LPL. In the...

  • PANETH CELLS: THEIR ROLE IN INNATE IMMUNITY AND INFLAMMATIORY DISEASE. Elphick, D. A.; Mahida, Y. R. // Gut;Dec2005, Vol. 54 Issue 12, p1802 

    In this article, we discuss the current understanding of how the intestinal mucosa may exert control over luminal bacteria, and how intestinal inflammation could ensue when this control is lost. We shall review research showing how Paneth cells, and evolutionarily conserved innate immune...

  • mucoenteritis.  // Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary (2009);2009, Issue 21, p1501 

    A definition of the term "mucoenteritis," which refers to inflammation of intestinal mucosa, is presented.

  • CD98 expression modulates intestinal homeostasis, inflammation, and colitis-associated cancer in mice. Hang Thi Thu Nguyen; Dalmasso, Guillaume; Torkvist, Leif; Halfvarson, Jonas; Yutao Yan; Laroui, Hamed; Shmerling, Doron; Tallone, Tiziano; D'Amato, Mauro; Sitaraman, Shanthi V.; Merlin, Didier // Journal of Clinical Investigation;May2011, Vol. 121 Issue 5, p1733 

    Expression of the transmembrane glycoprotein CD98 (encoded by SLC3A2) is increased in intestinal inflammatory conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and in various carcinomas, yet its pathogenetic role remains unknown. By generating gain- and loss-of-function mouse models with...

  • TLR2, TLR3, and TLR4 activation specifically alters the oxidative status of intestinal epithelial cells. Latorre, Eva; Mendoza, Carmen; Layunta, Elena; Alcalde, Ana; Mesonero, José // Cell Stress & Chaperones;Mar2014, Vol. 19 Issue 2, p289 

    Intestinal inflammatory diseases are the result of multiple processes, including mucosal oxidative stress and perturbed homeostasis between commensal bacteria and mucosal immunity. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize molecular-associated microorganisms' patterns and trigger innate immunity...

  • Autophagy as an important process in gut homeostasis and Crohn's disease pathogenesis. Xavier, Ramnik J.; Huett, Alan; Rioux, D. // Gut;Jun2008, Vol. 57 Issue 6, p717 

    The article discusses autophagy as a fundamental process in Crohn's disease pathogenesis and gut homeostasis. Autophagy is a cytoplasmic homeostasis pathway through which cytoplasmic portions that become isolated by a membrane for delivery to lysosomes. It demonstrated its protective role in...

  • Editorial: Differences in Intestinal Microbial Composition in Children With IBS-What Does It All Mean? Verdu, Elena F // American Journal of Gastroenterology;Nov2012, Vol. 107 Issue 11, p1752 

    Humans harbor complex microbial communities that cover the skin and the mucosal surfaces, including the gastrointestinal mucosa. The intestinal microbiota has coevolved with humans and has a key role in immune and functional gut maturation, maintenance of homeostasis as well as regulation of...

  • CX3CR1 regulates intestinal macrophage homeostasis, bacterial translocation, and colitogenic Th17 responses in mice. Medina-Contreras, Oscar; Geem, Duke; Laur, Oskar; Williams, Ifor R.; Lira, Sergio A.; Nusrat, Asma; Parkos, Charles A.; Denning, Timothy L. // Journal of Clinical Investigation;Dec2011, Vol. 121 Issue 12, p4787 

    The two most common forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, affect approximately 1 million people in the United States. Uncontrolled APC reactivity toward commensal bacteria is implicated in the pathogenesis of the disease. A number of functionally...

Share

Read the Article

Courtesy of VIRGINIA BEACH PUBLIC LIBRARY AND SYSTEM

Sign out of this library

Other Topics