Sodium-chloride-induced protection in nephrotoxic acute renal failure: Independence from renin

Bidani, Anil; Churchill, Paul; Fleischmann, Larry
October 1979
Kidney International;Oct1979, Vol. 16 Issue 4, p481
Academic Journal
It has been shown that the severity of experimentally induced acute renal failure (ARF) is inversely related to dietary sodium chloride intake, and the effects have been attributed to the concurrent changes in renal renin. In the current study, renal renin of rats was increased by chronic sodium deprivation and decreased by chronic sodium loading and DOCA administration. In two nephrotoxic models (mercuric chloride, uranyl nitrate), .giving previously sodium-deprived rats 1% sodium chloride to drink for 48 hours prior to ARF induction greatly attenuated the severity without any reduction in their high renal renin. Conversely, giving previously sodium-loaded rats tap water to drink for 4 to 5 days prior to AFR induction greatly enhanced the seventy without any increase in their subnormal renal renin. Therefore, the changes in severity of ARF resulting from changes in dietary sodium are not mediated by changes in renal renin. Significant inverse correlations were found between mean peak BUN values during the follow-up period (:5 to 7 days) and the 24-hour urinary sodium excretions, prior to ARF induction in both models, suggesting that sodium retake and/or excretion at the time of induction is a good predictor of the severity. The effects of sodium chloride in both models were predominantly expressed during the maintenance phase, and consisted of attenuation of the severity (both models) and hastening of the recovery (mercuric chloride model). Possible mechanisms by which dietary sodium produced its effects, independently of its effects on the renin-angiotensin system, are discussed.


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