Treatment of type B aortic dissection: endoluminal repair or conventional medical therapy?

Dialetto, Giovanni; Covino, Franco E.; Scognamiglio, Giancarlo; Manduca, Sabrina; Corte, Alessandro Della; Giannolo, Bruno; Scardone, Michelangelo; Cotrufo, Maurizio
May 2005
European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery;May2005, Vol. 27 Issue 5, p826
Academic Journal
Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the mid-term results of endovascular stent-grafting for type B aortic dissection, in comparison with those of standard medical therapy in uncomplicated cases. Methods: Between January 1999 and 2004, among 56 patients (mean age 59.5±11.5 years) with type B aortic dissection, hypotensive medical therapy was the only treatment in 28 uncomplicated cases, (group A), while stent-graft implantation was performed in 28 patients with uncontrolled hypertension, persistent pain or evidence of dissection progression or complication (group B). In 14 cases (50%) the procedure was performed in an acute setting. Stent-grafting procedures were monitored with intraoperative trans-esophageal echocardiography and cine-angiography. CT scan and trans-esophageal echocardiography were performed before hospital discharge, at 6 and 12 months and then yearly. Results: Follow-up (range 1–61 months, average 18.1±16.9 months) was 100% complete. In-hospital mortality was 10.7% (three patients, all belonging to Group B; P=0.24). No spinal cord injuries were observed. Early endoleak occurred in one patient (3.5%). Mid-term mortality was lower in Group B, although the difference was not significant (10.7 versus 14.3% in Group A, P=0.71). Follow-up CT scans evidenced complete thrombosis of the false lumen in 75% cases in Group B, 10.7% in Group A (P=0.0001), and an aneurismal dilatation of the descending aorta in 3.5% cases in Group B, 28.5% in Group A (P=0.02). Conclusions: Although with still considerable early mortality, endovascular stent-graft implantation is an effective option for the treatment of complicated type B aortic dissection. Endovascular treatment achieved a better mid-term fate of the descending thoracic aorta than medical therapy alone, even in patients with worse preoperative conditions.


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