Pathological Disorders of the Gastric Mucosa Surrounding Carcinomas and Primary Lymphomas

Arista-Nasr, Julián; Jiménez-Rosas, Fabiola; Uribe-Uribe, Norma; Herrera-Goepfert, Roberto; Lazos-Ochoa, Minerva
June 2001
American Journal of Gastroenterology;Jun2001, Vol. 96 Issue 6, p1746
Academic Journal
OBJECTIVE: Gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, atrophy, and dysplasia are disorders that frequently precede the full development of gastric adenocarcinoma. On the other hand, primary gastric lymphomas seem to arise from mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. It is well accepted that these histological changes are caused by Helicobacter pylori infection. The objective of this study is to determine the frequency and characteristics of epithelial and lymphoid tissue disorders of the gastric mucosa surrounding primary carcinomas and lymphomas. METHODS: We studied 111 gastrectomies from patients harboring primary adenocarcinomas (30 intestinal and 30 diffuse type) and 51 gastric lymphomas. For comparative purposes, we analized 86 stomachs from patients who died of diseases other than gastric malignancies. Histopathological disorders of the gastric mucosa adjacent to primary neoplasms such as atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, and dysplasia were recorded. Lymphoid follicles were classified in two groups, with or without expansion. Expansion was characterized by increased size, irregular borders, enlarged marginal zone, and expanded germinal centers. Differences were statistically evaluated with χ² and Fisher exact tests, odds ratio, and relative risk, with 95% CI. p values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Most intestinal-type adenocarcinomas showed atrophy (76.6%) and intestinal metaplasia (86.6%) and less frequently, dysplasia (23.3%), in the surrounding gastric mucosa. Expansive lymphoid follicles were more frequent among lymphomas than in adenocarcinomas (56.8% vs 25%); however, a high percentage of lymphomas were also associated with atrophy (50.9%). intestinal metaplasia (62.7%), and rarely dysplasia (11.8%). On the contrary, diffuse-type adenocarcinoma displayed less frequently atrophy (33%). intestinal metaplasia (50%), and dysplasia (3%). Gastric mucosa from patients without any gastric neoplasia was almost normal (84%), whereas the remaining 16% showed, both or alone, atrophy and intestinal metaplasia. CONCLUSION: Histopathological disorders of the gastric mucosa are not specific for any neoplasm, but intestinal-type adenocarcinomas frequently showed atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, and not uncommonly, dysplasia of the surrounding non-neoplastic gastric mucosa. Diffuse-type adenocarcinomas did not frequently show such lesions. Primary lymphomas displayed expansive lymphoid follicles and also a high percentage of atrophy and intestinal metaplasia of the surrounding gastric mucosa. The presence of intestinal metaplasia, atrophy, and lymphoid follicles with expansion in endoscopic biopsies could suggest a higher suceptibility for the development of gastric intestinal-type adenocarcinoma or gastric lymphoma. Patients harboring such histopathological changes must receive eradication therapy against H. pylori and probably closer follow-up.


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