Optimization of an analytical procedure for the determination of banned azo dyes in leather

Ahlström, Lars-Henric; Björklund, Erland; Mathiasson, Lennart
July 2005
Analytical & Bioanalytical Chemistry;Jul2005, Vol. 382 Issue 5, p1320
Academic Journal
The possibility of improving an existing method, based on supercritical-fluid extraction (SFE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), for the determination of banned azo dyes in leather has been studied. Thus, optimization of experimental conditions in different steps (degreasing, reduction, and extraction) of the analytical procedure was performed. The influence of different variables (reaction time, temperature, and concentration of reducing agent) on the reduction process was evaluated by use of a factorial design. It was found that the concentration of the reducing agent and the interaction between time and temperature were the most influential variables. Consequently, by applying a higher temperature, the reaction time could be halved. The use of acidified water as extraction solvent in MAE was also investigated. Usually 1 mol L−1 HCl was superior to methanol and buffer in terms of extraction efficiency. In conclusion, the present method gave significantly higher recoveries in comparison with the original method. All dyes were determined indirectly by measuring their corresponding harmful amines, formed after reduction by use of sodium dithionite.


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