The predictors and outcome of recidivism in cardiac ICUs

Vohra, Hunaid A.; Goldsmith, Ira R.A.; Rosin, Michael D.; Briffa, Norman P.; Patel, Ramesh L.
March 2005
European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery;Mar2005, Vol. 27 Issue 3, p508
Academic Journal
Abstract: Objective: Reinstitution of step-up care (recidivism) following cardiac surgery may be associated with increased mortality. This has, however, not been widely reported. Methods: We, therefore, studied 8113 consecutive patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), valve replacement/repair or combined valve+CABG surgery between January 1996 and December 2003 to determine the reasons for readmission to the intensive care unit (ICU) and their outcomes in terms of length of stay in (i) the ICU (ii) hospital and (iii) the in-hospital mortality following recidivism. Results: Of the 7717 patients discharged out of the ICU, 2.3% (182) of patients [mean age 70.4±8.35 years (range 30–90 years); 65.4% (119) males] required step-up care. Recidivism was 1.8% (101 of 5633) following coronary artery by-pass grafting (CABG) and 3.9% (81 of 2084) following valve replacement/repair±CABG (P<0.05). The mean interval from ICU discharge to ICU recidivism was 6.6±8.4 days (range 6h to 28 days). The principal reasons for recidivism were (i) respiratory failure requiring reintubation and ventilation in 54.9% (n=100) of patients (ii) cardiovascular instability (including that secondary to dysrhythmias) and heart failure in 23.1% (n=42) (iii) renal failure requiring haemofiltration in 6.6% (n=12) (iv) sepsis in 1.1% (n=2) (v) cardiac tamponade/bleeding requiring re-exploration in 7.7% (n=14) and (vi) gastro-intestinal complications requiring laparotomy in 6.0% (n=11) patients. Multivariate analysis showed that, during primary ICU stay, respiratory complications, low cardiac output state, dysrhythmias, renal failure requiring haemofiltration and re-exploration for bleeding were independent predictors of recidivism. Following recidivism (i) the mean length of stay in the ICU was 6.65±6.2 days (range 4h to 51 days), (ii) mean hospital stay was 19.2±17.3 days (10–60 days) and (iii) the 30-day in-hospital mortality was 32.4%. Conclusions: Patients are more likely to require recidivism following valve surgery±CABG than CABG alone. Whilst respiratory complications were the most common reasons for recidivism in our study, patients who required mechanical supports to maintain vital functions following surgery were most prone to recidivism. Hence, efforts should be made to treat cardio-respiratory problems early in this group of patients to reduce ICU recidivism.


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