Identification of natural dyes used in works of art by pyrolysis–gas chromatography/mass spectrometry combined with in situ trimethylsilylation

Casas-Catalán, María José; Doménech-Carbó, María Teresa
May 2005
Analytical & Bioanalytical Chemistry;May2005, Vol. 382 Issue 2, p259
Academic Journal
Samples of four natural dyes from different organic families—natural madder (anthraquinonoid), curcuma (curcuminoid), saffron (carotenoid) and indigo (indigotic)—were analysed using a new procedure based on pyrolysis–gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py–GC/MS), which includes the on-line derivatisation of the natural dyes using hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS). In addition, a previous procedure involving the addition of a 10% H2SO4 aqueous solution to the dye and further separation with ethyl acetate has been tested. This procedure enhances the sensitivity of the method by extracting the colouring compounds from the rest of the compounds present in the natural dye. Two possible derivatising reagents—HMDS and tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH)—were compared in order to assess their effectiveness in the proposed method. Characteristic peaks from trimethylsilyl derivatives of alizarin, quinizarin, xanthopurpurin and purpurin were obtained for madder; peaks from safranal, isophorone and trimethylsilyl derivative of crocetin for saffron; peaks from 4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy)phenyl-3-buten-2-one and 4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy)phenyl-2-butanone, which are primary pyrolysis products of curcuma, and peaks from indole, 2-methylindole and 2,3-dihydroindol-2-one, which are primary pyrolysis products of indigo, among others, were obtained. The reported procedure leads to the unambiguous identification of the four studied dyes from solid samples formed by individual dyes.


Related Articles

  • Fate of Copper in Copperized Dyes During Biological Waste Treatment I: Direct Dyes. Baugham, George L. // Textile Chemist & Colorist & American Dyestuff Reporter;Jan2000, Vol. 32 Issue 1, p51 

    Sorption coefficients were measured for 12 direct dyes using sludge from a municipal treatment plant and for two of the same dyes using sludge from a different municipal treatment plant that normally receives dyehouse effluent. Cupric ion sorption was measured as a control. The results show that...

  • Ion-Exchange Sample Displacement Chromatography as a Method for Fast and Simple Isolation of Low- and High-Abundance Proteins from Complex Biological Mixtures. Gajdosik, Martina Srajer; Kovac, Spomenka; Malatesti, Nela; Müller, Egbert; Josic, Djuro // Food Technology & Biotechnology;Jan-Mar2014, Vol. 52 Issue 1, p58 

    Sample displacement chromatography (SDC) in reversed phase and ion-exchange modes was introduced at the end of 1980s. This chromatographic method was first used for preparative purification of synthetic peptides, and subsequently adapted for protein fractionation, mainly in anion-exchange mode....

  • Isolation and characterization of the major natural dyestuff component of Brazilwood (Caesalpinia sappan L.). Lioe, H. N.; Adawiyah, D. R.; Anggraeni, R. // International Food Research Journal;2012, Vol. 19 Issue 2, p357 

    Brazilwood has been traditionally used as food and beverage colorant in Indonesia. The ethanol extract of brazilwood (Caesalpinia sappan L.) was subjected to the investigation of major natural dyestuff component. The dried heartwood was subjected to an extraction with 50% ethanol (1:3 v/v) at...

  • HPLC Analysis of Monofluoro-S-Triazine Dye during the Dyeing Process. Javoršek, Dejana; Kovač, Franci; Gorenšek, Marija // American Journal of Analytical Chemistry;Mar2014, Vol. 5 Issue 4, p215 

    In the research, the HPLC technique was applied in order to monitor the hydrolysis and dye-fibre bond-forming during the dyeing process. The results show that using a proper execution of calibration curves of the active and hydrolyzed form of the dye and defined equations, HPLC technique enable...

  • Spectrophotometric analysis of dyeings with vat dyestuffs. Ferus-Comelo, Martin // Colourage;Jul2013, Vol. 60 Issue 7, p35 

    In this article, the author presents spectrophotometric analysis of dyeings using two dyestuffs the Indanthrene Yellow F3GC and the Coravat Blue BC MD. He informs that the Coravat Blue BC MD has higher substantivity and exhaustion speed than the Indanthrene Yellow F3GC. He mentions that addition...

  • Online LC-MS-MS process monitoring for optimization of biological treatment of wastewater containing azo dye concentrates. Rehorek, Astrid; Plum, Alexander // Analytical & Bioanalytical Chemistry;Mar2006, Vol. 384 Issue 5, p1123 

    A biological high-performance treatment process comprising two 40-L reactor compartments has been developed for purification and decoloration of concentrated textile wastewater containing up to 15 g L−1 reactive dyestuff. The decoloration rate of 95% meets the requirements of German...

  • Liquid chromatography with triple-quadrupole and quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the determination of micro-constituents – a comparison. Stolker, Alida (Linda) A. M.; Niesing, Willem; Fuchs, Regine; Vreeken, Rob J.; Niessen, Wilfried M. A.; Brinkman, Udo A. Th. // Analytical & Bioanalytical Chemistry;Apr2004, Vol. 378 Issue 7, p1754 

    The potential of liquid chromatography with triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-QqQ MS) was compared to that of quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-ToF MS) for the determination of microconstituents. Three applications were studied: (1) the ng/l quantification of five human...

  • Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Clinical Applications. Zonderman, Jeffrey; Shushan, Bori // Spectroscopy;Nov2008 Current Trends in Mass Spec, p25 

    The article discusses the importance of liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry in clinical applications. It says that liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) is emerging as a complementary method to traditional methodology used for clinical...

  • Solution to the birthday chromatography challenge. Meija, Juris // Analytical & Bioanalytical Chemistry;May2008, Vol. 391 Issue 1, p3 

    The article provides a solution to a problem that involves the maximum number of components that one can expect to separate using certain column in relation to chromatography. It is stated that statistics presents a variety of simple solutions where the occurrence of coincidences is largely...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics