GaN-based light-emitting diodes with indium tin oxide texturing window layers using natural lithography

Horng, R. H.; Yang, C. C.; Wu, J. Y.; Huang, S. H.; Lee, C. E.; Wuu, D. S.
May 2005
Applied Physics Letters;5/30/2005, Vol. 86 Issue 22, p221101
Academic Journal
There is a significant gap between the internal and external efficiencies of conventional GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The reason for this shortfall is the narrow escape cone for light in high refractive index semiconductors. In this letter, the p-side-up GaN/sapphire LEDs with surface textured indium tin oxide (ITO) widow layers were investigated using natural lithography with polystyrene spheres as the etching mask. Under optimum etching conditions, the surface roughness of the ITO film can reach 140 nm while the polystyrene sphere on the textured ITO surface is maintained at about 250–300 nm in diameter. The output power of the ITO/GaN LED with and without surface texturing is 10.9, and 8.5 mW at 20 mA, respectively. The LEDs fabricated using the surface-textured ITO produced an output power that exceeded that of the planar-surface LED by about 28% at 20 mA.


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