Threshold current density of electromigration in eutectic SnPb solder

Yeh, Y. T.; Chou, C. K.; Hsu, Y. C.; Chih Chen; Tu, K. N.
May 2005
Applied Physics Letters;5/16/2005, Vol. 86 Issue 20, p203504
Academic Journal
Electromigration has emerged as an important reliability issue in the microelectronics packaging industry since the dimension of solder joints has continued to shrink. In this letter, we report a technique that enables the precise measurement of the important parameters of solder electromigration, such as activation energy, critical length, threshold current density, effective charge numbers, and electromigration rate. Patterned Cu/Ti films in a Si trench were employed for eutectic SnPb solder to be reflowed on, and thus solder Blech specimens were fabricated. Atomic force microscope was used to measure the depletion volume caused by electromigration on the cathode end. The threshold current density is estimated to be 8.5×103 A/cm2 at 100 °C, which relates directly to the maximum allowable current that a solder joint can carry without electromigration damage. This technique facilitates the scientifically systematic investigation of electromigration in solders.


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