Void-free anisotropic deposition for IC interconnect with polyethylene glycol as the single additive based on uneven adsorption distribution

Wu, B.-H.; Wan, C.-C.; Wang, Y.-Y.
September 2003
Journal of Applied Electrochemistry;Sep2003, Vol. 33 Issue 9, p823
Academic Journal
The adsorption behaviour of polyethylene glycol (PEG) in the presence of chloride ion in an acid copper electrolyte was investigated by several electrochemical methods including chronopotentiometry, linear sweep voltammetry, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance. Surface coverages calculated from the chronopotentiometry measurement were fitted into the Toth isotherm with good agreement. The standard free energy of PEG adsorption, ΔG∘ads, evaluated to be -51.67 kJ mol-1 indicates strong interaction between PEG and the copper surface. Current–potential hysteresis was found in bath with low PEG concentration as the result of low PEG adsorption rate. Void-free anisotropic deposition for IC copper interconnect can thus be achieved with the addition of PEG only by properly adjusting its concentration based on its adsorption behaviour.


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