On the formation and stability of p-type conductivity in nitrogen-doped zinc oxide

Barnes, Teresa M.; Olson, Kyle; Wolden, Colin A.
March 2005
Applied Physics Letters;3/14/2005, Vol. 86 Issue 11, p112112
Academic Journal
The behavior of nitrogen in ZnO thin films grown by high-vacuum plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition is examined. Highly oriented (002) films doped with 0–2 at. % N were characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD), Seebeck, and Hall measurements. XRD measurements revealed that the zinc oxide lattice constant decreased systematically with nitrogen doping. The as-deposited films were p-type at high doping levels, as confirmed by both Seebeck and Hall measurements. However, it was observed that hole conduction decreased and films reverted to n-type conductivity in a period of several days. This change was accompanied by a simultaneous increase in the lattice constant. The transient electrical behavior may be explained by compensation caused either by hydrogen donors or through defect formation processes common to analogous II-VI semiconductors.


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