Characterisation, asymmetry and reproducibility of on- and off-transient pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics in endurance-trained runners

Kilding, A.E.; Challis, N.V.; Winter, E.M.; Fysh, M.
February 2005
European Journal of Applied Physiology;Feb2005, Vol. 93 Issue 5/6, p588
Academic Journal
The purpose of this study was three-fold: (1) to characterise both the on- and off-transient oxygen uptake (V?O2) kinetics in endurance runners during moderate-intensity treadmill running; (2) to determine the degree of symmetry between on- and off-transients; and (3) to determine the reproducibility ofV?O2 kinetic parameters in endurance runners. Twelve endurance-trained runners [mean (SD) age 25.2 (4.7) years, body mass 70.1 (9.7) kg, height 179.5 (7.5) cm, ventilatory threshold (VT), 3,429 (389) ml.min-1, maximalV?O2 (V?O2max) 4,138 (625) ml.min-1] performed two multiple square-wave transition protocols on separate days. The protocol consisted of six (three transitions, 15 min rest, three transitions) square-wave transitions from walking at 4 km.h-1 to running at a speed equivalent to 80% of theV?O2 at theVT (80%VT). To determine the reproducibility, the protocol was repeated on a separate day (i.e. a test-retest design). Pulmonary gas-exchange was measured breath-by-breath. TheV?O2 data were modelled [from 20 s post-onset (or offset) of exercise] using non-linear least squares regression by a mono-exponential model, incorporating a time delay. The on- and off-transient time constants (ton andtoff), mean response times (MRTon and MRToff) and amplitudes (Aon andAoff) were obtained from the model fit. On- and off transient kinetics were compared using pairedt-tests. The reproducibility of each kinetic parameter was explored using statistical (pairedt-tests) and non-statistical techniques [95% limits of agreement (LOA, including measurement error and systematic bias) and coefficient of variation (CV)]. It was found that theton [12.4 (1.9)] was significantly (P<0.001) shorter thantoff [24.5 (2.3) s]. Similarly, MRTon [27.1 (1.9) s] was shorter than MRToff [33.4 (2.2) s]. With respect to the reproducibility of the parameters, pairedt-tests did not reveal significant differences between test 1 and test 2 for any on- or off-transientV?O2 kinetic parameter (P>0.05). The LOA forton (1.9 s),toff (2.3 s), MRTon (1.2 s), MRToff (3.2 s),Aon (204 ml.min-1) andAoff (198 ml.min-1) were narrow and acceptable. Furthermore, the measurement error (range, 4.3 to 15.1%) and CV (1.3 to 4.8%) all indicated good reproducibility. There was a tendency fortoff to be more reproducible thanton. However, MRTon was the most reproducible kinetic parameter. Overall, the results suggest that: (1) a multiple square-wave transition protocol can be used to characterise, reproducibly, both on- and off-transientV?O2 kinetic parameters during treadmill running in runners; (2) the phase II time constant is independent ofV?O2max, and (3) asymmetry exists between on- and off transientV?O2 kinetic parameters.


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