Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in a Low-Income Region in Turkey

Bor, Serhat; Mandiracioglu, Aliye; Kitapcioglu, Gul; Caymaz-Bor, Canan; Gilbert, Richard J.
April 2005
American Journal of Gastroenterology;Apr2005, Vol. 100 Issue 4, p759
Academic Journal
OBJECTIVES: Detailed population-based data regarding the prevalence and symptom profile of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in underdeveloped and developing Caucasian countries are lacking. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and clinical spectrum of GERD in a low-income region in Turkey.METHODS: We used a previously validated reflux questionnaire, which was translated into Turkish and culturally adapted. The questionnaire was applied to 630 randomly selected participants greater than 20 yr old living in a population of 8,857 adults, with a low mean income of$75/person/month. The reliability and reproducibility of the questionnaire were calculated using the kappa statistic (test-retest). Endoscopy and/or 24-h intraesophageal pH monitoring were used to ascertain its validity in identifying patients with reflux.RESULTS: The prevalence of GERD symptoms was 10% for heartburn, 15.6% for regurgitation, and 20% for either symptom experienced at least weekly (95% CI). Heartburn and regurgitation were associated with noncardiac chest pain (37.3%), dysphagia (35.7%), dyspepsia (42.1%), odynophagia (35.7%), globus, hoarseness, cough, hiccup, nausea, vomiting, belching, and NSAID use, but not with body mass index in both frequent and occasional symptom groups. The prevalence of heartburn symptoms, but not regurgitation, increased significantly with age.CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of GERD in a low-income population in Turkey was similar to that of developed countries, although with a different symptom profile, namely, a lower incidence of heartburn and a higher incidence of regurgitation and dyspepsia. These findings support the contention that there are a large number of patients worldwide in underdeveloped nations with poorly recognized and largely undertreated GERD.(Am J Gastroenterol 2005;100:1–7)


Related Articles

  • Characteristics of Gastroesophageal Reflux in Symptomatic Patients With and Without Excessive Esophageal Acid Exposure. Bredenoord, Albert J.; Weusten, Bas L.A.M.; Timmer, Robin; Smout, Andŕe J.P.M. // American Journal of Gastroenterology;Nov2006, Vol. 101 Issue 11, p2470 

    OBJECTIVE: In some patients with a physiological esophageal acid exposure, an association between reflux episodes and symptoms can be demonstrated. Besides acidity, other factors such as proximal extent may determine whether a reflux episode is perceived or not. We aimed to investigate the...

  • Comparison of Esophageal Acid Exposure Distribution Along the Esophagus Among the Different Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) Groups. Dickman, Ram; Bautista, Jimmy M.; Wai-Man Wong; Bhatt, Rajan; Beeler, Joy N.; Malagon, Isaac; Risner-Adler, Sara; Kwok-Fai Lam; Fass, Ronnie // American Journal of Gastroenterology;Nov2006, Vol. 101 Issue 11, p2463 

    BACKGROUND: Patients with nonerosive reflux disease (NERD) have the lowest esophageal acid exposure profile compared with the other gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) groups. AIM: To compare lower esophageal acid exposure recordings 1 cm above the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) with those...

  • Heartburn.  // American Family Physician;11/15/2003, Vol. 68 Issue 10, p2033 

    Provides information on heartburn. Definition; Causes; Tips on stopping heartburn.

  • Esophageal mucosal acid sensitivity can coexist with normal pH recording in healthy adult volunteers. Ho, Khek Yu; Kang, Jin Yong // Journal of Gastroenterology;2000, Vol. 35 Issue 4, p261 

    Abstract: We aimed to determine whether healthy volunteers with normal pH monitoring study results experienced heartburn or discomfort during an esophageal acid perfusion test. We performed an esophageal acid perfusion test, followed by ambulatory esophageal pH monitoring, in 15 healthy and...

  • Esophageal mucosal acid sensitivity--normal or abnormal? Kinoshita, Yoshikazu // Journal of Gastroenterology;2000, Vol. 35 Issue 4, p310 

    Editorial. Presents information on the endoscopic-negative gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Basis for the diagnosis of GERD; Division of GERD in the monitoring of its hydrogen-ion concentration; Classifications of patients with symptoms suggesting GERD.

  • Non-Acid Reflux: Detection by Multichannel Intraluminal Impedance and pH, Clinical Significance and Management. Vela, Marcelo F // American Journal of Gastroenterology;Feb2009, Vol. 104 Issue 2, p277 

    The article explores an approach to measure non-acid reflux in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and its clinical importance. Multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH (MII-pH) is able to detect gastroesophageal reflux at all pH levels. Performing MII-pH on medication in patients with...

  • Prevalence and Clinical Spectrum of Gastroesophageal Reflux: A Population-Based Study in Asan-si, Korea. Cho, Young-Seok; Choi, Myung-Gyu; Jeong, Jeong-Jo; Chung, Woo-Chul; Lee, In-Seok; Kim, Sang-Woo; Han, Sok-Won; Choi, Kyu-Yong; Chung, In-Sik // American Journal of Gastroenterology;Apr2005, Vol. 100 Issue 4, p747 

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: This study estimated the prevalence and clinical spectrum of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in Asan-si, Korea, as the prevalence is believed to be lower than in Western countries.METHODS: A cross-sectional survey, using a reliable and valid questionnaire, was...

  • Prospective Follow-Up Data from the ProGERD Study Suggest that GERD Is Not a Categorial Disease. Labenz, Joachim; Nocon, Marc; Lind, Tore; Leodolter, Andreas; Jaspersen, Daniel; Meyer-Sabellek, Wolfgang; Stolte, Manfred; Vieth, Michael; Willich, Stefan N.; Malfertheiner, Peter // American Journal of Gastroenterology;Nov2006, Vol. 101 Issue 11, p2457 

    OBJECTIVES: There is a controversy as to whether gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) exists as a spectrum of disease severity or as a categorial disease in three distinct groups: nonerosive (NERD) and erosive reflux disease (ERD) and Barrett's esophagus (BE). Aim of the study was to assess...

  • Reproducibility of Multichannel Intraluminal Electrical Impedance Monitoring of Gastroesophageal Reflux. Bredenoord, Albert J.; Weusten, Bas L.A.M.; Timmer, Robin; Smout, Andre J. P. M. // American Journal of Gastroenterology;Feb2005, Vol. 100 Issue 2, p265 

    OBJECTIVE: Esophageal impedance measurement is a novel method for gastroesophageal reflux monitoring. Reproducibility is an important aspect of every biomedical test. The aim of this study was therefore to asses the reproducibility of gastroesophageal reflux monitoring using impedance...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics