Vernon Jeffords, J.; Knisely, Melvin H.
April 1956
Angiology;Apr1956, Vol. 7 Issue 2, p105
Academic Journal
1. Measurements of the internal diameters and lengths of branchless segments of mesenteric arterioles of frogs and mice show those geometrically to be cone-shaped, not cylindrical. 2. Photographs of larger blood vessels strongly suggest but do not prove that segments of these are cone-shaped, not cylindrical. 3. Many more measurements of branchless segments of arteries and veins are now needed as a part of attempting to understand the rheology of blood. 4. Neither the Poiscuille equation nor any other equation which describes only the flow through cylinders can describe the flow of either unagglutinated or agglutinated blood through segments of cones. 5. Three separate rheologic consistencies of blood have been recognized and now require investigation separately. (a) The flow of unagglutinated blood. Saunders and Knisely (63) found unagglutinated blood flowing at physiologic rates through terminal arterioles as narrow as, depending upon species, from 5 to 7.7 micra in diameter. (b) The flow of agglutinated blood which can be forced to flow through living vessels at rates adequate to keep the subject alive. (c) The flow of blood sufficiently agglutinated so that it cannot be kept flowing at available arterial pressures. Saunders and Knisely (63) found that the maximal internal diameters to which the terminal mesenteric arterioles can distend as they are Impacted with masses of sludge are: for hamsters and mice, 9 micra; for rats and rabbits, 8 micra; for cats, 11 micra; and for dogs, 10 micra. 6. Appendix I points out, (a) that the currently available ideas abut the so-called viscosity or the “apparent viscosity” of blood are useless for attempting to understand the flow of blood under any one of the three regimens defined above; (b) that a measurement of the so-called “apparent viscosity” of a sample of blood cannot l)e used in any currently known way to determine the rheologic behavior of that blood within the living patient. 7. New directions of study which are now possible and necessary are pointed out in the discussion. 8. A careful, systematic search should now be instituted to find safe and effective drugs which will cause the disintegration of masses of agglutinated blood cells in each disease of animals and men.


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