Clinical benefits of continuous leukocyte filtration during cardiopulmonary bypass in patients undergoing valvular repair or replacement

Sutton, S. W.; Patel, A. N.; Chase, V. A.; Schmidt, L. A.; Hunley, E. K.; Yancey, L. W.; Hebeler, R. F.; Cheung, E. H.; Henry III, A. C.; Meyers, T. P.; Wood, R. E.
January 2005
Perfusion;Jan2005, Vol. 20 Issue 1, p21
Academic Journal
Valve operations in the form of repair or replacement make up a significant population of patients undergoing surgical procedures in the USA annually with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. These patients experience a wide range of complications that are considered to be mediated by activation of complement and leukocytes. The extracorporeal perfusion circuit consists of multiple synthetic artificial surfaces. The biocompatibility of the blood contact surfaces is a variable that predisposes patients to an increased risk of complement mediation and activation. This can result in an inflammatory process, causing leukocytes to proliferate and sequester in the major organ systems. The purpose of this study was to determine whether filtration of activated leukocytes improved clinical outcomes following surgical intervention for valve repair or replacement. In this paper, we report a retrospective matched cohort study of 700 patients who underwent valve procedures from June 1999 to December 2002. The control group (CG) consisted of patients who had a conventional arterial line filter. In the study group (SG), patients had a conventional arterial line filter and a leukocyte arterial line filter (Pall Medical, NY). In the SG, blood diverted to the cardioplegia system was also leukocyte depleted to enhance myocardial preservation by adapting this device to the outflow port on the filter. Patient characteristics were similar for the SG and the CG, including 228 males and 122 females, mean age (62.4 versus 64.2 years), cardiopulmonary bypass time (127±64 versus 116±53 min), and aortic crossclamp time (84±23 versus 81±23 min). Our results demonstrate that the SG achieved statistically significant reduction in the time to extubation (p=0.03) and the number of patients with prolonged intubation in excess of 24 hours (p <0.04), in addition to improved postoperative oxygenation (p=0.01), and decreased length of hospital stay (p=0.03). We believe that leukocyte filters are clinically beneficial, as demonstrated by the results presented in this study.


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