Clinical and Virological Course of Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection With Hepatitis C and D Virus Markers

Yun-Fan Liaw; Sun-Lung Tsai; I-Shyan Sheen; Mei Chao; Chau-Ting Yeh; Sen-Yung Hsieh; Chia-Ming Chu
March 1998
American Journal of Gastroenterology;Mar1998, Vol. 93 Issue 3, p354
Academic Journal
Objective: Hepatitis B, C, and delta virus (HBV, HCV, HDV) share similar transmission routes; thus, dual or triple infections may occur and even persist in the same patient. However, little is known about the presentations and course of chronic HBV infection with HCV and HDV markers, which this study examined. Methods: Antibodies against HCV (anti-HCV) and HDV (anti-HDV) were assayed as appropriate in patients with HBV infection. The clinical, pathological, and virological presentations as well as the course of the disease in patients with HBV/HDV/HCV triple infection markers were then reviewed. Results: A total of 60 patients, 51 men and nine women, age 19-67 yr (mean 45.9 ± 1.6 yr) were identified. Of these 60 patients, five (8.3%) were HBeAg positive and 10 (16.7%) cirrhotic at entry, 30 (50%) presented with acute superinfection (HCV or HDV, or both) and the remaining 30 presented with chronic liver disease. On presentation, 16 (53.3%) of the 30 patients with acute superinfection showed hepatic decompensation and eight (26.7%) died. In contrast, only one of the patients with "chronic liver disease" presented with hepatic decompensation. Of the 42 patients followed up for 1-15 (mean, 4.7 ± 0.6) yr, 45.2% showed remission and 19% showed HBsAg seroclearance, whereas 12.5% of the 32 noncirrhotics developed cirrhosis and three of the nine cirrhotics became decompensated. At the end of follow-up, 29 patients (69.9%) were still seropositive for HCV-RNA but only nine (22.5%) were seropositive for HDV-RNA and five (12.5%) were seropositive for HBV-DNA. Conclusions: These results suggest that infection with HBV, HCV, and HDV triple markers is a severe disease in acute superinfection stage but that the course is relatively benign, slowly progressive, and usually dominated by HCV.


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