Apoptosis and Necrosis in the Development of Acute Lung Injury After Hemorrhagic Shock

Jernigan, T. Wright; Croce, Martin A.; Fabian, Timothy C.
December 2004
American Surgeon;Dec2004, Vol. 70 Issue 12, p1094
Academic Journal
Acute lung injury can be a complication of hemorrhagic shock. Mechanisms of injury include neutrophil-derived inflammatory products that induce necrosis within the lung. Recent data has shown apoptosis, in addition to necrosis, as a pathway leading toward acute lung injury in shock models. This study quantitates apoptotic and necrotic cells in the lung after hemorrhagic shock. Mongrel pigs (20-30 kg) under general anesthesia (with pancuronium and pentobarbital) underwent instrumentation with placement of carotid and external jugular catheters. The animals were randomized to sham hemorrhage (n = 6) and to hemorrhagic shock (n = 7). The hemorrhagic shock group then underwent hemorrhage (40-45% blood volume) to a systolic blood pressure of 40-50 mm Hg for 1 hour. The animals were then resuscitated with shed blood plus crystalloid to normalization of heart rate and blood pressure. The animals were observed under general anesthesia for 6 hours after resuscitation, then sacrificed, and lungs were harvested. Lung injury parameters including histology (H&E stain), apoptosis [terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferasemediated dUTP biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL)], and myeloperioxidase activity (spectrophotometric assay) were assessed. Hemorrhagic shock induced marked loss of lung architecture, neutrophil infiltration, alveolar septal thickening, hemorrhage, and edema in H&E staining. Furthermore, MPO activity, a marker for neutrophil infiltration and activation, was more than doubled as compared to controls (44.0 vs 20.0 Crisham units activity/g). Apoptosis (cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, apoptotic bodies) and necrosis (cellular swelling, membrane lysis) in neutrophils, macrophages, as well as in alveolar cells was demonstrated and quantified by H&E staining use. Apoptosis was confirmed and further quantified by positive TUNEL signaling via digital semiquantitative analysis, which revealed a significant increase in apoptotic cells (16.0 vs 2.5 cells/hpf, sho...


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