Prevalence and optimal management strategy for aortic regurgitation in tetralogy of Fallot

Ishizaka, Toru; Ichikawa, Hajime; Sawa, Yoshiki; Fukushima, Norihide; Kagisaki, Koji; Kondo, Haruhiko; Kogaki, Shigetoyo; Matsuda, Hikaru
December 2004
European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery;Dec2004, Vol. 26 Issue 6, p1080
Academic Journal
Abstract: Objective: Aortic regurgitation (AR) in the tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is not frequent, but when present it impacts significantly on surgical management. Furthermore, the incidence of late AR development has been increasing, along with surgical interest in current practices. Methods: Pre- and post-operative studies on 427 patients (TOF, 374; TOF/PA (TOF with pulmonary atresia), 53) who survived corrective operation were reviewed. AR (≧mild) was detected in 28. Results: Nine had AR preoperatively, while 25 (including six with preoperative AR) exhibited AR post-operatively. In the 19 who developed AR post-operatively, the aortic root diameter (AoRoD) and indexed AoRoD (%AoRoD) were 42±11mm and 166±36%, increased from the preoperative values of 30±10mm and 149±24%. AR-free rate at 20 years was 95.1% of all cases studied, 84.3 vs 96.5% in TOF/PA vs classic TOF (P<0.0001), and 82.2 vs 97.0% in bulboventricular VSD vs infracristal VSD (P<0.0001). Older age at repair, and bulboventricular VSD were identified as risk factors for the progression of AR. Aortic valvuloplasty (AVP; n=5) or replacement (AVR; n=4) was performed nine times in eight patients before (n=1), during (n=4), or late after TOF repair (n=4); all showed improvement of NYHA class. Survival- and reoperation-free survival curves showed no significant difference between patients with or without AR. Conclusions: After repair of TOF, careful observation for a late progression of AR is needed for the optimal timing of surgical intervention, especially in patients who repaired at higher age with a dilated aortic root or in patients with bulboventricular VSD.


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