TITLE

Bulk Microphysical Sensitivities within the MM5 for Orographic Precipitation. Part II: Impact of Barrier Width and Freezing Level

AUTHOR(S)
Colle, Brian A.; Zeng, Yanguang
PUB. DATE
December 2004
SOURCE
Monthly Weather Review;Dec2004, Vol. 132 Issue 12, p2802
SOURCE TYPE
Academic Journal
DOC. TYPE
Article
ABSTRACT
This paper investigates the impact of barrier width and freezing level on the microphysical processes and pathways within the Reisner2 bulk microphysical parameterization (BMP) using a two-dimensional version of the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University–National Center for Atmospheric Research (PSU–NCAR) Mesoscale Model (MM5). As the barrier half-width is decreased incrementally from 50 km (relatively wide mountain) to 10 km (narrow mountain) for a deep orographic cloud and a 750-mb freezing level, the percentage of water vapor loss (WVL) rate over the windward slope leading to snow deposition decreases from 23% to 7%, while condensation increases from 74% to 93% of WVL rate. A narrow (10 km) barrier has less snow aloft, twice as much cloud water over the windward slope, and a shallow region of intense riming over the crest that results in twice as much graupel as the wide (50 km) barrier. It is found that a relatively wide barrier (≥30 km half-width) allows more time for snow growth aloft; therefore, it is more sensitive to snow parameters over the windward slope such as the slope intercept for number concentration and fall speeds. In contrast, a narrower barrier is more sensitive to rain and graupel processes, such as the cloud water autoconversion and graupel fall speeds. The wide barrier has a larger sensitivity to cloud water processes when the freezing level is elevated to 500 mb, while the narrow barrier is more sensitive to snow processes when the freezing level is lowered to 1000 mb. For a 1000-mb freezing level, the lack of riming and accretion reduces the rapid increase in maximum precipitation that is shown to occur when the barrier half-width is reduced from 20 and 10 km for a higher freezing level.
ACCESSION #
15415929

 

Related Articles

  • Observations and Regional Climate Model Simulations of Heavy Precipitation Events and Seasonal Anomalies: A Comparison. Kunkel, Kenneth E.; Andsager, Karen; Liang, Xin-Zhong; Arritt, Raymond W.; Takle, Eugene S.; Gutowski Jr.,, William J.; Pan, Zaitao // Journal of Hydrometeorology;Jun2002, Vol. 3 Issue 3, p322 

    A regional climate model simulation of the period of 1979–88 over the contiguous United States, driven by lateral boundary conditions from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction–National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalysis, was analyzed to assess the ability of...

  • Analytical Solutions to the Stochastic Kinetic Equation for Liquid and Ice Particle Size Spectra. Part I: Small-Size Fraction. Khvorostyanov, Vitaly I.; Curry, Judith A. // Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences;Jul2008, Vol. 65 Issue 7, p2025 

    The kinetic equation of stochastic condensation for cloud drop size spectra is extended to account for crystalline clouds and also to include the accretion–aggregation process. The size spectra are separated into small and large size fractions that correspond to cloud drops (ice) and rain...

  • POCKETS OF OPEN CELLS AND DRIZZLE IN MARINE STRATOCUMULUS. Stevens, Bjorn; Vali, Gabor; Comstock, Kimberly; Wood, Robert; Van Zanten, Margreet C.; Austin, Philip H.; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Lenschow, Donald H. // Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society;Jan2005, Vol. 86 Issue 1, p51 

    Data from recent field studies in the northeast and southeast Pacific are used to investigate pockets of open cells (POCs) that are embedded in otherwise uniform stratocumulus. The cellular structure within a POC resembles broader regions of open cellular convection typically found further...

  • Precipitation extremes in a karst region: a case study in the Guizhou province, southwest China. Qiang Zhang; Chong-Yu Xu; Zengxin Zhang; Xi Chen; Zhaoqing Han // Theoretical & Applied Climatology;2010, Vol. 101 Issue 1/2, p53 

    We analyzed the changing properties of precipitation extremes in the Guizhou province, a region of typical karst geomorphology in China. Precipitation extremes were defined by the largest 1- and 5-day precipitation total. Trends of precipitation extremes were detected by using...

  • Convective Structure of Hurricanes as Revealed by Lightning Locations. Molinari, John; Moore, Paul; Idone, Vincent // Monthly Weather Review;Apr99, Vol. 127 Issue 4, p520 

    Cloud-to-ground lightning flash locations were examined for nine Atlantic basin hurricanes using data from the National Lightning Detection Network. A common radial distribution in ground flash density was evident: a weak maximum in the eyewall region, a clear minimum 80-100 km outside the...

  • Dynamical and Synoptic Characteristics of Heavy Rainfall Episodes in Southern Brazil. Teixeira, Mateus da Silva; Satyamurty, Prakki // Monthly Weather Review;Feb2007, Vol. 135 Issue 2, p598 

    The dynamical and synoptic characteristics that distinguish heavy rainfall episodes from nonheavy rainfall episodes in southern Brazil are discussed. A heavy rainfall episode is defined here as one in which the 50 mm day-1 isohyet encloses an area of not less than 10 000 km2 in the domain of...

  • The Effect of Environmental Conditions on Tropical Deep Convective Systems Observed from the TRMM Satellite. Bing Lin; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Minnis, Patrick; Chambers, Lin; Kuan-Man Xu; Yongxiang Hu; Fan, Alice // Journal of Climate;Nov2006, Vol. 19 Issue 22, p5745 

    This study uses measurements of radiation and cloud properties taken between January and August 1998 by three Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) instruments, the Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) scanner, the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI), and the Visible and...

  • CCSM–CAM3 Climate Simulation Sensitivity to Changes in Horizontal Resolution. Hack, James J.; Caron, Julie M.; Danabasoglu, G.; Oleson, Keith W.; Bitz, Cecilia; Truesdale, John E. // Journal of Climate;Jun2006, Vol. 19 Issue 11, p2267 

    The latest version of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM) Community Atmosphere Model version 3 (CAM3) has been released to allow for numerical integration at a variety of horizontal resolutions. One goal of the CAM3 design was to provide comparable large-scale simulation fidelity over a...

  • Orographic Precipitation and Oregon’s Climate Transition. Smith, Ronald B.; Barstad, Idar; Bonneau, Laurent // Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences;1/1/2005, Vol. 62 Issue 1, p177 

    Oregon’s sharp east–west climate transition was investigated using a linear model of orographic precipitation and four datasets: (a) interpolated annual rain gauge data, (b) satellite-derived precipitation proxies (vegetation and brightness temperature), (c) streamflow data for a...

Share

Read the Article

Courtesy of THE LIBRARY OF VIRGINIA

Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics