Model Study of Evolution and Diurnal Variations of Rainfall in the North American Monsoon during June and July 2002

Li, J.; Gao, X.; Maddox, R. A.; Sorooshian, S.
December 2004
Monthly Weather Review;Dec2004, Vol. 132 Issue 12, p2895
Academic Journal
Rainfall evolution and diurnal variation are important components in the North American monsoon system (NAMS). In this study these components are numerically studied using the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University–National Center for Atmospheric Research (PSU–NCAR) Mesoscale Model (MM5) with high resolution (12-km grids) in contrast to most previous model studies that used relatively coarse spatial resolutions (>25 km grids). The model was initialized at the start of each month and allowed to run for 31 days. The study shows that, in general, the model results broadly matched the patterns of satellite-retrieved rainfall data for monthly rainfall accumulation. The rainfall timing evolution in the monsoon core region predicted by the model generally matched the gauge observations. However, the differences among the three precipitation estimates (model, satellite, and gauge) are obvious, especially in July. The rainfall diurnal cycle pattern was reproduced in the monsoon core region of western Mexico, but there were differences in the diurnal intensity and timing between modeled and observed results. Furthermore, the model cannot capture the diurnal variation over Arizona. Modeling results showed heavy monsoon rains shift northward along the western Mexico coast in association with the northward evolution of the subtropical highs. This is consistent with previous data analyses. The rainfall diurnal cycle was associated mainly with sea–land/mountain–valley circulations over western Mexico and adjacent oceans. The simulations show that the model has deficiencies in predicting precipitation over the Gulf of Mexico. The model cannot reproduce the low-level inversion above the marine boundary layers and thus does not generate enough convective inhibition (CIN) to suppress the convection. The model also cannot produce realistic variations of day-to-day atmospheric conditions with only a single initialization at the start of the month.


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