Mercury-free sono-electroanalytical detection of lead in human blood by use of bismuth-film-modified boron-doped diamond electrodes

Kruusma, Jaanus; Banks, Craig E.; Compton, Richard G.
June 2004
Analytical & Bioanalytical Chemistry;Jun2004, Vol. 379 Issue 4, p700
Academic Journal
We report the electroanalytical determination of lead by anodic stripping voltammetry at in-situ-formed, bismuth-film-modified, boron-doped diamond electrodes. Detection limits in 0.1 mol L–1 nitric acid solution of 9.6x10-8 mol L–1 (0.2 ppb) and 1.1x10-8 mol L–1 (2.3 ppb) were obtained after 60 and 300 s deposition times, respectively. An acoustically assisted deposition procedure was also investigated and found to result in improved limits of detection of 2.6×10-8 mol L–1 (5.4 ppb) and 8.5×10-10 mol L–1 (0.18 ppb) for 60 and 300 s accumulation times, respectively. Furthermore, the sensitivity obtained under quiescent and insonated conditions increased from 5.5 (quiescent) to 76.7 A mol–1 L (insonated) for 60 s accumulation and from 25.8 (quiescent) to 317.6 A mol–1 L (insonated) for 300 s accumulation. Investigation of the use of ultrasound with diluted blood revealed detection limits of the order of 10-8 mol L–1 were achievable with excellent inter- and intra-reproducibility and sensitivity of 411.9 A mol–1 L . For the first time, electroanalytical detection of lead in diluted blood is shown to be possible by use of insonated in-situ-formed bismuth-film-modified boron-doped diamond electrodes. This method is a rapid, sensitive, and non-toxic means of clinical sensing of lead in whole human blood.


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