TITLE

Derivatisation in gas chromatographic determination of acidic herbicides in aqueous environmental samples

AUTHOR(S)
Rompa, Martyna; Kremer, Ewa; Zygmunt, Bogdan
PUB. DATE
October 2003
SOURCE
Analytical & Bioanalytical Chemistry;Oct2003, Vol. 377 Issue 4, p590
SOURCE TYPE
Academic Journal
DOC. TYPE
Article
ABSTRACT
This paper reviews derivatisation processes applied in chromatographic determination of acidic herbicides (with carboxyl and phenol groups), mainly in aqueous environmental samples. The discussion focuses on the basic derivatisation reactions used to convert herbicides to derivatives to make them analysable by gas chromatography, and possibly to reduce detection limits and/or increase extraction recovery from aqueous samples. The reactions are transesterification, esterification, silylation, alkylation, and extractive and pyrolytic alkylation. The reagents used to conduct the reactions are numerous. Diazomethane is a very efficient methylation reagent but explosive and toxic. Methyl iodide also ensures rapid and efficient methylation. Benzyl bromide can be used directly in water but derivatisation yield is low and reproducibility is poor. Butyl chloroformate and dimethyl sulfite can also be used for derivatisation in water, and acetic anhydride can be used for in-situ derivatisation of phenolic herbicides. For increasing selectivity of GC detection pentafluorobenzyl bromide (for ECD) and (2-cyanethyl)dimethyl(diethylamino)silane (for NPD) have been applied. Very characteristic ions are produced in mass spectra if silyl groups are introduced, e.g. by using bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide. Tetramethylammonium, trimethylphenylammonium, tetraalkylammonium, and trimethylsulfonium hydroxides and salts can by used for derivatisation at elevated temperature in the GC injection port. Extractive alkylation is relatively efficient if tetraalkylammonium salts with long chain alkyl groups are used.
ACCESSION #
15124759

 

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