TITLE

Forensic discrimination of photocopy and printer toners. III. Multivariate statistics applied to scanning electron microscopy and pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

AUTHOR(S)
Egan, William J.; Galipo, Randolph C.; Kochanowski, Brian K.; Morgan, Stephen L.; Bartick, Edward G.; Miller, Mark L.; Ward, Dennis C.; Mothershead II, Robert F.
PUB. DATE
August 2003
SOURCE
Analytical & Bioanalytical Chemistry;Aug2003, Vol. 376 Issue 8, p1286
SOURCE TYPE
Academic Journal
DOC. TYPE
Article
ABSTRACT
Copy toner samples were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy with X-ray dispersive analysis (SEM–EDX) and pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py–GC/MS). Principal component and cluster analysis of SEM data for 166 copy toner samples established 13 statistically different subgroups, with the presence or absence of a ferrite base being a major division. When toners were compared for which both SEM and reflection–absorption infrared spectral data were available, 41% of the samples could be assigned to specific manufacturers. Py–GC/MS on poly(styrene:acrylate)-based toners produced eight peaks relevant to toner differentiation. One third of the toners clustered in a small group that contained five statistically different subgroups. Of the 57 toners for which both Py–GC/MS and SEM data were available, 31 could be differentiated using the combined analytical results. The synergy of the complementary information provided by Py–GC/MS and SEM narrows matching possibilities for forensic investigations involving copied or laser printed documents.
ACCESSION #
15124668

 

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