Forensic discrimination of photocopy and printer toners. III. Multivariate statistics applied to scanning electron microscopy and pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

Egan, William J.; Galipo, Randolph C.; Kochanowski, Brian K.; Morgan, Stephen L.; Bartick, Edward G.; Miller, Mark L.; Ward, Dennis C.; Mothershead II, Robert F.
August 2003
Analytical & Bioanalytical Chemistry;Aug2003, Vol. 376 Issue 8, p1286
Academic Journal
Copy toner samples were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy with X-ray dispersive analysis (SEM–EDX) and pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py–GC/MS). Principal component and cluster analysis of SEM data for 166 copy toner samples established 13 statistically different subgroups, with the presence or absence of a ferrite base being a major division. When toners were compared for which both SEM and reflection–absorption infrared spectral data were available, 41% of the samples could be assigned to specific manufacturers. Py–GC/MS on poly(styrene:acrylate)-based toners produced eight peaks relevant to toner differentiation. One third of the toners clustered in a small group that contained five statistically different subgroups. Of the 57 toners for which both Py–GC/MS and SEM data were available, 31 could be differentiated using the combined analytical results. The synergy of the complementary information provided by Py–GC/MS and SEM narrows matching possibilities for forensic investigations involving copied or laser printed documents.


Related Articles

  • Novel Electrophotographic Toners for Providing Metallic Effects. Tyagi, Dinesh; Granica, Louise; Lofftus, Kevin // IS&T Reporter;Oct-Dec2013, Vol. 28 Issue 4, p462 

    In order to produce toners that are capable of providing metallic sparkle and effect, a number of obstacles have to be first overcome. Since having static charge is an important requirement for toners, it is not practical to use conductive metal flakes in metallic toner formulations. This...

  • Binding/stitching.  // Printing World;9/29/2005, Vol. 291 Issue 13, p29 

    Reports on the problems caused by silicones and toners used to fuse the inks when a piece of print reaches the bindery, according to Graphic Arts Equipment head of marketing Vic Fletcher in Great Britain. Reaction of glue to the silicon making the book to fall apart; Use of Horizon BQ-270...

  • Measurements of chlorinated volatile organic compounds emitted from office printers and photocopiers. Kowalska, Joanna; Szewczyńska, Małgorzata; Pośniak, Małgorzata // Environmental Science & Pollution Research;Apr2015, Vol. 22 Issue 7, p5241 

    Office devices can release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) partly generated by toners and inks, as well as particles of paper. The aim of the presented study is to identify indoor emissions of volatile halogenated organic compounds into the office workspace environment. Mixtures of organic...

  • Investigation of the Effects of Additive-Blending Conditions on Toner Characteristics and Performances. Kim, Nahyoung; Park, Chanhyuk; Jin, Hyun; Hwang, Ilsun; Yon, Kyung-Yol // Journal of Imaging Science & Technology;2012, Vol. 56 Issue 5, p1 

    Abstract External additive blending is one of the most important processes in toner manufacturing. It determines the electrostatic properties, powder properties, and physical properties of the toner, and therefore the xerographic performance of the toner. Additive-blending conditions, as well as...

  • Differentiation of Color Photocopy Toners using TLC, UV, and FTIR Techniques. Saini, Komal; Saroa, Jagjeet Singh // Journal of Forensic Identification;Nov/Dec2011, Vol. 61 Issue 6, p561 

    In this study, an attempt was made to differentiate 28 processed color toners and 10 raw samples using thin-layer chromatography (TLC), ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV), and fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. When all of these methods were used, most of the toners were able to be...

  • Valspar adds eco-friendly De Beer WaterBase 900+ series to its waterborne refinish products.  // Paintindia;Nov2011, Vol. 61 Issue 11, p156 

    The article previews the De Beer WaterBase 900+ Series of toner products from Valspar Automotive.

  • Construction of an S-layer protein exhibiting modified self-assembling properties and enhanced metal binding capacities.  // Applied Microbiology & Biotechnology;Jul2007, Vol. 75 Issue 5, p1079 

    The functional S-layer protein gene slfB of the uranium mining waste pile isolate Bacillus sphaericus JG- A12 was cloned as a polymerase chain reaction product into the expression vector pET Lic/Ek 30 and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli B121(DE3). The addition of His tags to the N...

  • 3-Hydroxy fatty acids found in capsules of Cryptococcus neoformans. Sebolai, Olihile M.; Pohl, Carolina H.; Botes, Piet J.; Strauss, Catharina J.; van Wyk, Pieter W. J.; Botha, Alfred; Kock, Johan L. F. // Canadian Journal of Microbiology;Jun2007, Vol. 53 Issue 6, p809 

    Using immunofluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy, immunogold transmission electron microscopy and gas chromatography – mass spectrometry, we demonstrated the presence of 3-hydroxy fatty acids in Cryptococcus neoformans. Our results suggest that these oxylipins accumulate in...

  • Save a bundle with toner-cartridge recycling. Blechman, Fred // Popular Electronics;Mar94, Vol. 11 Issue 3, p71 

    Focuses on toner cartridge recycling. Reduction of costs in recharging toner cartridges; Use of toner cartridges in laser printers and copying machines and plain-paper facsimile machines.


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics