TITLE

Water diffusion coefficients during copper electropolishing

AUTHOR(S)
Bing Du; Ian Ivar suni
PUB. DATE
December 2004
SOURCE
Journal of Applied Electrochemistry;Dec2004, Vol. 34 Issue 12, p1215
SOURCE TYPE
Academic Journal
DOC. TYPE
Article
ABSTRACT
Cu electropolishing was studied using a rotating disc electrode in a variety of phosphoric acid-based electrolytes, including several with ethanol and other species added as diluents. Diluents allow a wider range of water concentrations and electrolyte viscosities to be accessed and also reduce the removal rate during Cu electropolishing, simplifying possible application to damascene processing. Transient and steady state currents in the mass transfer limited regime are shown to depend on both the number of water acceptor molecules associated with each dissolving Cu ion and on the effective diffusion coefficient of water. Transient analysis samples the bulk transport properties, whereas steady state analysis integrates them through the diffusion layer. Assuming that the effective diffusion coefficients appropriate to transient and steady state behavior are the same, about one water molecule is associated with each dissolving Cu ion. This analysis yields effective diffusion coefficients for water on the order of 10-9cm2s-1. However, the data is also consistent with an assumption that six water molecules are associated with each dissolving Cu ion, but the effective diffusion coefficient appropriate for a Levich analysis is somewhat lower than that in the bulk electrolyte. This analysis yields effective diffusion coefficients for water on the order of 10-8–10-7cm2s-1. The latter interpretation, that six water molecules are associated with each dissolving Cu ion, appears more likely since it provides almost exact agreement with the effective diffusion coefficient reported previously by Vidal and West. In combination with previously published impedance results ruling out a salt film mechanism, the good agreement between the transient and steady state analyses confirm that water is the acceptor species that complexes dissolving Cu ions in phosphoric acid-based electropolishing baths.
ACCESSION #
15123834

 

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