Fluorine-enhanced low-temperature wafer bonding of native-oxide covered Si wafers

Tong, Q.-Y.; Gan, Q.; Fountain, G.; Enquist, P.; Scholz, R.; Gösele, U.
October 2004
Applied Physics Letters;10/25/2004, Vol. 85 Issue 17, p3731
Academic Journal
The bonding energy of bonded native-oxide-covered silicon wafers treated in the HNO3/H2O/HF or the HNO3/HF solution prior to room-temperature contact is significantly higher than bonded standard RCA1 cleaned wafer pairs after low-temperature annealing. The bonding energy reaches over 2000 mJ/m2 after annealing at 100 °C. The very slight etching and fluorine in the chemically grown oxide are believed to be the main contributors to the enhanced bonding energy. Transmission-electron-microscopic images have shown that the chemically formed native oxide at bonding interface is embedded with many flake-like cavities. The cavities can absorb the by-products of the interfacial reactions that result in covalent bond formation at low temperatures allowing the strong bond to be retained.


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