de Ponti, F.
October 2004
Gut;Oct2004, Vol. 53 Issue 10, p1520
Academic Journal
The pharmacology of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) in the gut has been the centre of intense interest and research for several decades. Although it is now recognised that 5-HT is contained in intrinsic enteric neurones (where it works as a neurotransmitter), enterochromaffin cells of the mucosa are the main source (more than 90%) of the body's 5-HT. In the gut, 5-HT is an important mucosal signalling molecule targeting enterocytes, smooth muscle cells, and enteric neurones. Application of exogenous 5-HT evokes so many responses that it is difficult to determine which are physiologically relevant. This bewildering range of effects is largely due to the presence of multiple receptor subtypes, which appear to be present on several classes of myenteric neurones, on smooth muscle cells, and on epithelial cells. 5-HT is thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of several clinical entities such as functional gut disorders (namely, irritable bowel syndrome), carcinoid diarrhoea, and chemotherapy induced emesis. In this review, the possible targets for pharmacological intervention are analysed in the light of the most recent advances of our understanding of the role of 5-HT in gut pathophysiology. Indeed, the recent regulatory interventions on cisapride (a 5-HT4 receptor partial agonist) and alosetron (a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist) have prompted a rethinking of our approaches to the pharmacological modulation of serotonergic pathways. In gut disorders, the most interesting targets for pharmacological intervention are: (1) the 5-HT receptor subtypes known to affect gut function such as those belonging to the 5-HT1, 5-HT3, 5-HT4, and 5-HT7 subtypes; and (2) the 5-HT reuptake mechanism which, apart from the central nervous system, is expressed in enteric neurones and enterocytes and is blocked by antidepressants.


Related Articles

  • What are the objectives of treatment for intestinal lymphangiectasia? Takahashi, Hiroki; Imai, Kohzoh // Journal of Gastroenterology;2001, Vol. 36 Issue 2, p137 

    Editorial. Discusses the objective of treatment for intestinal lymphangiectasia. Definition of protein-losing gastroenteropathy; Tissue fibrinolytic activity in the mucosa of intestinal lymphangiectasia; Mechanism of the effect of octereotide in intestinal lymphangiectasia.

  • Bioadhesive Polymeric Platforms for Transmucosal Drug Delivery Systems - a Review. Roy, Saroj Kumar; Prabhakar, Bala // Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research;Feb2010, Vol. 9 Issue 1, p91 

    Of the various routes of drug delivery, the oral route is often preferred by the patient. However, peroral administration of drugs has disadvantages such as hepatic first-pass metabolism and enzymatic degradation within the gastrointestinal tract which constitutes a hindrance to oral...

  • Expression of p75NTR and Trk neurotrophin receptors in the enteric nervous system of human adults. Kondyli, Maria; Varakis, John; Assimakopoulou, Martha // Anatomical Science International;Dec2005, Vol. 80 Issue 4, p223 

    Recent evidence suggests that the expression of p75NTR and Trk neurotrophin receptors is essential for neuronal survival, not only during development, but also in adulthood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cell localization and distribution of p75NTR and Trk receptors in the...

  • The inflammatory and normal transcriptome of mouse bladder detrusor and mucosa. Saban, Marcia R.; Hellmich, Helen L.; Turner, Mary; Ngoc-Bich Nguyen; Vadigepalli, Rajanikanth; Dyer, David W.; Hurst, Robert E.; Centola, Michael; Saban, Ricardo // BMC Physiology;2006, Vol. 6, p1 

    The article presents the study to determine bladder tissue- and disease-specific genes and transcriptional regulatory elements in response to inflammation. The first step of the study was the separation of the mucosa and individual layers away from detrusor smooth muscle and adventitia. It was...

  • Autocrine regulation of asthmatic airway inflammation: role of airway smooth muscle. McKay, Sue; Sharma, Hari S. // Respiratory Research;2002, Vol. 3, p11 

    Chronic airway inflammation is one of the main features of asthma. Release of mediators from infiltrating inflammatory cells in the airway mucosa has been proposed to contribute directly or indirectly to changes in airway structure and function. The airway smooth muscle, which has been regarded...

  • Endoscopic Aspiration Lumpectomy of Esophageal Leiomyomas Derived from the Muscularis Mucosae. Kajiyama, Toru; Sakai, Masahiko; Torii, Ayao; Kishimoto, Hiroyuki; Kin, Gisen; Uose, Suguru; Ueda, Shunji; Okuma, Minoru; Inoue, Kazutomo // American Journal of Gastroenterology;Mar1995, Vol. 90 Issue 3, p417 

    Objectives: There is still much debate about the indications and best technique for endoscopy for the treatment of esophageal leiomyomas. We developed a novel technique for endoscopic aspiration lumpectomy and used it in patients with esophageal leiomyomas derived from the muscularis mucosae....

  • Immunocytochemical characterisation of cultures of human bladder mucosal cells. Woodman, Jacqueline R.; Mansfield, Kylie J.; Lazzaro, Vittoria A.; Lynch, William; Burcher, Elizabeth; Moore, Kate H. // BMC Urology;2011, Vol. 11 Issue 1, p5 

    Background: The functional role of the bladder urothelium has been the focus of much recent research. The bladder mucosa contains two significant cell types: urothelial cells that line the bladder lumen and suburothelial interstitial cells or myofibroblasts. The aims of this study were to...

  • HISTOMORPHOLOGICAL STUDIES ON THE STOMACH OF INDIAN ELEPHANT (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS). Indu, V. R.; Lucy, K. M.; Maya, S.; Chungath, J. J. // Indian Journal of Animal Research;Jun2014, Vol. 48 Issue 3, p227 

    The present study was carried out on three elephant calves to elucidate the general histoarchitecture of stomach of Indian elephant. The stomach was simple and cylindrical with conical diverticulum ventriculi in the anterior border. Grossly the mucosa showed a pale smaller non-glandular region...

  • Nasal Chondromesenchymal Hamartoma in Older Children and Adults: Series and Immunohistochemical Analysis. Ozolek, John A.; Carrau, Ricardo; Barnes, E. Leon; Hunt, Jennifer L. // Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine;Nov2005, Vol. 129 Issue 11, p1444 

    Context.—Nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma is a benign mass lesion of the nasal cavity predominantly described in young infants. These unusual lesions are composed of a proliferation of mesenchymal and cartilaginous elements. Their pathogenesis is unknown, but they may be derived from...


Read the Article


Sign out of this library

Other Topics