TITLE

Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Cardiovascular Disease

AUTHOR(S)
Parish, James M.; Somers, Virend K.
PUB. DATE
August 2004
SOURCE
Mayo Clinic Proceedings;Aug2004, Vol. 79 Issue 8, p1036
SOURCE TYPE
Academic Journal
DOC. TYPE
Article
ABSTRACT
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common medical condition that occurs in approximately 5% to 15% of the population. The pathophysiology of OSA is characterized by repetitive occlusions of the posterior pharynx during sleep that obstruct the airway, followed by oxyhemoglobin desaturation, persistent inspiratory efforts against the occluded airway, and termination by arousal from sleep. Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with daytime sleepiness and fatigue, likely due to fragmented sleep from recurrent arousals. Substantial evidence shows that patients with OSA have an increased incidence of hypertension compared with individuals without OSA and that OSA is a risk factor for the development of hypertension. Recent studies show that OSA may be implicated in stroke and transient ischemic attacks. Obstructive sleep apnea appears to be associated with coronary heart disease, heart failure, and cardiac arrhythmias. Pulmonary hypertension may be associated with OSA, especially in patients with preexisting pulmonary disease. Although the exact cause that links OSA with cardiovascular disease is unknown, there is evidence that OSA is associated with a group of proinflammatory and prothrombotic factors that have been identified to be important in the development of atherosclerosis. Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with increased daytime and nocturnal sympathetic activity. Autonomic abnormalities seen in patients with OSA include increased resting heart rate, decreased R-R interval variability, and increased blood pressure variability. Both atherosclerosis and OSA are associated with endothelial dysfunction, increased Creactive protein, interleukin 6, fibrinogen, and plasminogen activator inhibitor, and reduced fibrinolytic activity. Obstructive sleep apnea has been associated with enhanced platelet activity and aggregation. Leukocyte adhesion and accumulation on endothelial cells are common in both OSA and atherosclerosis. Clinicians should be aware that OSA may be a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease.
ACCESSION #
14201682

 

Related Articles

  • Influence of obstructive sleep apnea on heart rate turbulence. Yang, A.; Schäfer, H.; Manka, R.; Andrié, R.; Schwab, J.; Lewalter, T.; Lüderitz, B.; Tasci, S. // Basic Research in Cardiology;Sep2005, Vol. 100 Issue 5, p439 

    Background Patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Increased sympathetic drive is considered as one of the underlying mechanisms. Both heart rate turbulence (HRT) and heart rate variability (HRV) are parameters to describe autonomic...

  • Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome promotes reversal albuminuria during sleep. Daskalopoulou, Euphemia; Liavvas, Christos; Nakas, Christos; Vlachogiannis, Emmanuel; Bouros, Demosthenes; Dombros, Nicholas // Sleep & Breathing;Sep2011, Vol. 15 Issue 3, p589 

    Introduction: Sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) may induce albuminuria during sleep which could reflect one of the possible pathogenetic mechanisms regarding cardiovascular risk. Materials and methods: We studied 224 patients with newly diagnosed OSAS, free of any chronic disease, and any regular...

  • Pulse wave analysis in a pilot randomised controlled trial of auto-adjusting and continuous positive airway pressure for obstructive sleep apnoea. Bakker, Jessie; Campbell, Angela; Neill, Alister // Sleep & Breathing;Sep2011, Vol. 15 Issue 3, p325 

    Purpose: Non-invasive measurements of arterial stiffness including the augmentation index (AIx) and central blood pressure (BP) have been used to assess the cardiovascular health of patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), a well-established independent risk factor of cardiovascular...

  • Sleep Therapy and Heart Disease.  // Saturday Evening Post;Sep/Oct2005, Vol. 277 Issue 5, p59 

    Reports on the protective effect of the continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment used for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients against death related to cardiovascular disease according to a study published in the June 2005 issue of "Chest." Comparison of cardiovascular...

  • Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Quantification by Cardiovascular Data Analysis. Camargo, Sabrina; Riedl, Maik; Anteneodo, Celia; Kurths, Jürgen; Penzel, Thomas; Wessel, Niels // PLoS ONE;Sep2014, Vol. 9 Issue 9, p1 

    Sleep disorders are a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Sleep apnea is the most common sleep disturbance and its detection relies on a polysomnography, i.e., a combination of several medical examinations performed during a monitored sleep night. In order to detect occurrences of...

  • Use of high-frequency peak in spectral analysis of heart rate increment to improve screening of obstructive sleep apnoea. Poupard, Laurent; Court-Fortune, Isabelle; Pichot, Vincent; Chouchou, Florian; Barthélémy, Jean-Claude; Roche, Frédéric // Sleep & Breathing;Dec2011, Vol. 15 Issue 4, p837 

    Purpose: Several studies have correlated the ratio of the very low frequency power spectral density of heart rate increment (%VLFI) with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS). However, patients with impaired heart rate variability may exhibit large variations of heart rate increment (HRI)...

  • A state transition-based method for quantifying EEG sleep fragmentation. Swarnkar, Vinayak; Abeyratne, Udantha R.; Duce, Brett; Hukins, Craig // Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing;Oct2009, Vol. 47 Issue 10, p1053 

    Sleep fragmentation is the predominant factor causing excessive daytime sleepiness in diseases such as sleep apnea and periodic leg movement syndrome. The reference standard for quantifying sleep fragmentation is the arousal index (ArI), which is defined as the average number of arousals per...

  • Influence of the severity of obstructive sleep apnea on nocturnal heart rate indices and its association with hypertension. Özeke, Özcan; Güngör, Mutlu; Hızel, Serap Bilen; Aydın, Dilek; Ertürk, Özcan; Çelenk, Mehmet Kutlu; Dinçer, Hazım; İliçin, Gürler; Özgen, Fuat; Özer, Can // Anatolian Journal of Cardiology / Anadolu Kardiyoloji Dergisi;Sep2011, Vol. 11 Issue 6, p509 

    Objective: Both heart rate (HR) and blood pressure parameters provide important information on the pathophysiology of the cardiovascular regulatory mechanisms, and are mainly affected by the autonomic nervous system. We sought to clarify whether the severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)...

  • Hypertension and obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome: current perspectives. Baguet, J.-P.; Barone-Rochette, G.; Pépin, J.-L. // Journal of Human Hypertension;Jul2009, Vol. 23 Issue 7, p431 

    Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS), due to the collapse of the upper airways, is a common but still underestimated condition. The ‘dose–response’ type relationship between OSAS and hypertension (HT) has now been clearly proven. There are multiple mechanisms explaining...

Share

Read the Article

Courtesy of VIRGINIA BEACH PUBLIC LIBRARY AND SYSTEM

Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics