January 2019
Acta Medica Croatica;2019, Vol. 73 Issue 1, p3
Academic Journal
Human microbiota consists of all microorganisms living in symbiosis with the human body, and human microbiome contains 100-fold more genes than the human genome. Although microorganisms can be found in various niches of the human body, the most numerous is the gut microbiota. The microbiota is variable among healthy people and unique for an individual, and it is influenced by many different factors. It is still unclear what exactly a healthy microbiota is, but some of its roles in physiological processes in health are known. On the other hand, in case of imbalance of the microbiota, or dysbiosis, diseases may develop. Dysbiosis is often associated with the emergence of many pathological conditions, of which the most studied are obesity, chronic inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, colorectal cancer, allergic diseases of children, and oral cavity diseases. Development of methods that do not depend on the cultivation of microorganisms has significantly improved the study of microbiota and contributed to better understanding of the interaction of nonpathogenic microorganism populations with each other and with their host. This is paving the way for studying the influence of microbiota on the development of diseases, as well as applying microbiota modification for preventive and therapeutic purpose.


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