The Effect of the Sowing Methods and the Seeding Rate on the Yield of NicandraPhysalodes Biomass in Single-Species and Mixed with Sugar Sorghum Phytocenosesinthe Steppe Zone of the Volga Region

October 2018
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research (09752366);Oct-Dec2018, Vol. 10 Issue 4, p323
Academic Journal
Long-term studies have been performed, aimed at improving the fodder base through selection and improvement of the cultivation technologies of traditional, new and introduced crops in single-species and mixed agrophytocenoses. It has been shown that one of the most productive new fodder crops with high content of nutrients and biologically active substances is nicandraphysalodes. Biochemical, botanical, biological and agrotechnical characteristics of nicandraphysalodes of grade Nakhodka in single-species and mixed crops with sugar sorghum of variety Volga 51 have been studied. It has been found that germination was significantly influenced by the weather conditions and the methods of cultivation. Formation of the leaf surface and its productivity directly depended on the soil moisturizing conditions, vegetation phases and methods of cultivation. From germination to branching low leaf surface was observed (1.0-2.4 thousand m2/ha); the maximum rate of its formation was noted from budding to flowering (35.5-42.0 thousand m2/ha). In the humid years of 2016 and 2017, the rate of nicandraphysalodes leaf surface formation in single-species and mixed with sorghum crops was 18.0-26.0% higher than in the arid years of 2014 and 2015. Inall vegetation phases, the share of leaf area formation in mixed crops was 10.1-12.5% higher than in singlespecies crops. Accumulation of green and dry biomass occurred similar to formation of the leaf surface. On the average over for 4 years, the maximum yield of green (40.8 t/ha) and dry (9.1 t/ha) biomass was obtained in case of wide-space (45 cm) sowing with the seeding rate of 200 thousand seeds/ha. Mixed sowings provide higher yields of green and dry biomass (12.5 to 15.8%), fodder units and protein (21.0 to 26.5%), compared to single-species sowings of these crops. In sowings of nicandramixedwith sugar sorghum at the seeding rate of components of 75% from the one adopted for one-species sowings, the maximum yielding capacity of green (of 36.8 t/ha) and dry biomass (7.8 t/ha) was achieved.


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