Atomic dipole moments calculated using analytical molecular second-moment gradients

Solheim, Harald; Ruud, Kenneth; Astrand, Per-Olof
June 2004
Journal of Chemical Physics;6/8/2004, Vol. 120 Issue 22, p10368
Academic Journal
We have implemented analytical second-moment gradients for Hartree—Fock and multiconfigurational self-consistent-field wave functions. The code is used to calculate atomic dipole moments based on the generalized atomic polar tensor (GAPT) formalism [Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1469 (1989)], and the proposal of Dinur and Hagler (DH) for the calculation of atomic multipoles [J. Chem. Phys. 91, 2949 (1989)]. Both approaches display smooth basis-set convergence toward a well-defined basis-set limit and give reasonable electron correlation effects on the calculated atomic properties. However, the atomic charges and atomic dipole moments obtained from the GAPT partitioning scheme are unable to provide even qualitatively meaningful molecular quadrupole moments for some molecules, and thus the atomic multipole moments calculated in this scheme cannot be considered well suited for analyzing the electron density in molecules and for calculating intermolecular interaction energies. In contrast, the DH approach gives atomic charges and dipole moments that by definition exactly reproduce the molecular quadrupole moments. The approach of DH is, however, restricted to planar molecules and thus suffers from not being applicable to molecules of arbitrary shape. Both the GAPT and DH approaches give rather poor results for octupole and hexadecapole moments, indicating that at least atomic quadrupole moments are required for an accurate representation of the molecular charge distribution in terms of atomic electric moments.


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