Supersonic dense granular materials in a duct flow

Soleymani, Azita; Zamankhan, Piroz; Plashenski Jr., William
May 2004
Applied Physics Letters;5/31/2004, Vol. 84 Issue 22, p4409
Academic Journal
Both large-scale three-dimensional molecular-dynamics-type simulation and integration of hydrodynamic equations relevant to dense granular flows were performed to investigate the formation of shock waves in granular flows past a stationary wedge in a rectangular duct. No signature of supersonic flows was found at grain speeds as small as 0.1 m/s. Upon increasing the speed of the grains, the flow became supersonic where complex solid structures were observed to form in both upstream and downstream flow regions. In addition, the compression shock formed on the upper edges of the channel adjacent to the wedge and the expansion fan formed adjacent to the rear face of the wedge. Both the compression shock and expansion fan appear to be analogous to those in supersonic gases with some fundamental differences arising due to the inelastic collisions between particles in granular media. © 2004 American Institute of Physics.


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