X-linked dyskeratosis congenita: restrictive pulmonary disease and a novel mutation

Safa, W. F.; Lestringant, G. G.; Frossard, P. M.
November 2001
Thorax;Nov2001, Vol. 56 Issue 11, p891
Academic Journal
Dyskeratosis congenita (DC) is a rare inherited multisystem disorder characterised by lesions of the skin and appendages. Bone marrow failure occurs in 80% of patients. The gene for the X-linked form of DC has been identified on Xq28 and designated as DKC1. Pulmonary manifestations have rarely been reported. It is not known whether there is a respiratory disease peculiar to these patients and, if so, whether it is associated with a specific genetic mutation. A 40 year old Egyptian man with pulmonary disease and his symptom free 35 year old brother both presented with mucocutaneous lesions characteristic of DC. In the older brother chest imaging revealed generalised intralobular interstitial thickening and honeycombing. Pulmonary function tests showed a restrictive pattern. Open lung biopsy specimens of lung tissue showed various degrees of fibrosis consistent with usual interstitial pneumonia of chronic idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The younger brother was free of pulmonary lesions. Both had a novel missense mutation 5C→T in exon 1 of the DKC1 gene. It is concluded that pulmonary disease in DC may be underestimated, possibly because most patients die at an early age of bone marrow failure. No relationship between genotype and phenotype could be established in the patients studied. The genetic diagnosis of DC is now available, which may enable it to be diagnosed in patients with restrictive pulmonary disease and minimal cutaneous signs.


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