# Microfabricated alkali atom vapor cells

## Related Articles

- A nonempirical model of the gas-cell atomic frequency standard. Camparo, J. C.; Frueholz, R. P. // Journal of Applied Physics;1/15/1986, Vol. 59 Issue 2, p301
Develops a signal model of the rubidium (Rb) atomic frequency standard. Mechanism required to describe processes occurring within the Rb absorption cell; Feedback analysis of servocontrol circuitry; Determination of the dependence of photon-absorption rates on axial position.

- A microfabricated atomic clock. Knappe, Svenja; Shah, Vishal; Schwindt, Peter D. D.; Hollberg, Leo; Kitching, John; Liew, Li-Anne; Moreland, John // Applied Physics Letters;8/30/2004, Vol. 85 Issue 9, p1460
Fabrication techniques usually applied to microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) are used to reduce the size and operating power of the core physics assembly of an atomic clock. With a volume of 9.5 mm3, a fractional frequency instability of 2.5Ã—10-10 at 1 s of integration, and dissipating...

- Ultraprecise Atomic Spectroscopy. Hänsch, T. W.; Fischer, M.; Kolachevsky, N.; Zimmermann, M.; Alnis, J.; Holzwarth, R.; Udem, Th. // AIP Conference Proceedings;2005, Vol. 770 Issue 1, p71
Femtosecond laser optical frequency comb synthesizers permit the ultraprecise comparison of optical frequencies with the microwave frequency of a cesium atomic clock. A new such measurement of the frequency of the hydrogen 1S-2S two-photon resonance is reported and compared with an earlier 1999...

- Atomic clocks based on coherent population trapping: a review. Vanier, J. // Applied Physics B: Lasers & Optics;Aug2005, Vol. 81 Issue 4, p421
The paper gives an overview of the use of the coherent population trapping phenomenon (CPT) in alkali-metal atoms in the implementation of atomic frequency standards. Several avenues are examined. These include: the approach using a combination of the CPT phenomenon and the Ramsey separated...

- The most accurate clock of all time. Marks, Paul // New Scientist;5/21/2005, Vol. 186 Issue 2500, p29
The article focuses on a clock that is 1000 times more accurate than any of its predecessors has set another benchmark, and could even be used to create a more precise definition of how long a second is. The new clock is a variant on the atomic clocks that appeared in the 1950's. The first...

- Optical atomic clocks: The times, they are a-changin'. Adam, David // Nature;1/16/2003, Vol. 421 Issue 6920, p207
Focuses on the development of atomic clocks. Accuracy of atomic clock; Use of atomic clocks; Working principle of atomic clocks; Factors that control the accuracy and stability of the atomic clocks.

- Fundamental stability limits for the diode-laser-pumped rubidium atomic frequency standard. Camparo, J. C.; Frueholz, R. P. // Journal of Applied Physics;5/15/1986, Vol. 59 Issue 10, p3313
Presents a study that examined the use of single-mode diode lasers in atomic frequency standards. Theoretical calculations in quantifying expected performance improvement upon incorporation of diode lasers in rubidium gas cell atomic frequency standards; Statistical data on the resonance cell...

- The method of integration of silicon -- micromachined sensors and actuators to microreactor made of Foturan glass. Knapkiewicz, Pawel; Walczak, Rafal; Dziuban, Jan A. // Optica Applicata;2007, Vol. 37 Issue 1/2, p65
In this article results of unique low temperature anodic bonding silicon and FoturanÂ® glass are presented. The new method of anodic bonding can be useful in designing and fabrication of intelligent microreactors equipped with microsensors and other microdevices suitable both to control and to...

- The role of long-term lamp fluctuations in the random walk of frequency behavior of the rubidium frequency standard: A case study. Volk, C. H.; Frueholz, R. P. // Journal of Applied Physics;2/1/1985, Vol. 57 Issue 3, p980
Presents a study which performed a long-term frequency test on a prototype rubidium (Rb) atomic frequency standard. Information on a prototype Rb gas cell atomic clock; Examination of the effects of noise sources, random processes on the frequency of the clock; Effect of light intensity changes...