TITLE

Synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of Cd[L-proline], a novel histone deacetylase inhibitor that induces epigenetic modification of histone deacetylase isoforms in A549 cells

AUTHOR(S)
Chidambaram, Anusha; Sekar, Arunachalam; S.H., Kavya; Chidambaram, Ramesh; Arunachalam, Kalaiarasi; G.P., Senthilkumar; Vilwanathan, Ravikumar
PUB. DATE
December 2017
SOURCE
Investigational New Drugs;Dec2017, Vol. 35 Issue 6, p691
SOURCE TYPE
Academic Journal
DOC. TYPE
Article
ABSTRACT
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play an important role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression through their effects on the compact chromatin structure. In clinical studies, several classes of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have demonstrated potent anticancer activities with metal complexes. Hence, we synthesized cadmium-proline complexes using both the D- and L-isomers of proline and evaluated their biological activities by observing the efficiency of their inhibition of HDAC activity, ability to reduce the expression of HDAC isoforms in A549 cells and effect on apoptosis. The synthesized compounds were characterized by UV, IR, NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. In-vitro cell toxicity was evaluated by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC; 2 μM) was obtained at 12 h. The morphological study at nuclear levels was performed by acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) and Hoechst staining, and the results showed an association with cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase. Both cadmium-proline complexes intensely inhibited HDAC activity at 2 μM concentration. Interestingly, Cd[L-proline] was found to be a potent inhibitor for all HDAC isoforms, whereas Cd[D-proline] inhibited only HDAC1 and 2. HDACi are novel chemotherapeutic drugs that induce hyperacetylation of histones H3 and H4, counteracting the aberrant repression of genes, such as insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), p53, and p21. ERK/MAPK signaling pathway resulted in the downregulation of the expression of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9), contributing to the inhibition of metastasis in A549 cells. Apoptosis induction was accompanied by the activation of death receptors and their ligands which recruit initiator caspase 8, decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), as well as increased Bax/Bcl ratio, followed by activation of caspases 9 and 3. Our finding suggests that Cd[L-proline] complex accelerates epigenetic rearrangement by HDAC inhibition, which may be the key mechanism for its anticancer activity.
ACCESSION #
126307962

 

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